Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Separation (Liquid-Liquid & Gas-Liquid)

Displaying 1 - 20 of 291 stories.
November 1, 2014
Bulk solids are frequently used as reactants, catalysts or products in chemical process industries (CPI) operations. Often, they must be heated or cooled so that they can be handled safely or processed at a desired temperature. Traditionally, heat transfer to or from powders is carried out using heated or water-cooled screws, fluidized beds or rotating drums. However, a more economical means of heating or...
November 1, 2014
Fabricated metal-wire mesh is one of the major categories of filter media. Woven metal cloths are often used to support a filter aid coating or a bed of granular or porous material. Proper selection of wire cloth can have a large impact on the cost and efficiency of the system. This column provides information on the options available for wire meshes in industrial filtration applications. Key questions for...
October 1, 2014
Many applications in the chemical process industries (CPI) require filtration — from cleaning the air of dust, to corrosion prevention, to cleaning up incoming process water, to recovering proteins downstream. No matter the application, filtration providers are working to improve technology for their chemical processing customers because better filtration leads to a higher-quality product, less...
August 1, 2014
Sorbent materials are used commercially for bulk separation, as well as purification of both liquids and gases. This one-page reference provides manufacturing and application information on the most widely used industrial sorbent material — activated carbon. Four types of generic sorbents have dominated industrial adsorption: activated carbon, zeolites, silica gel and activated alumina. By worldwide...
August 1, 2014
A dividing wall column (DWC) is an atypical distillation column with an internal, vertical partition wall that effectively accommodates — within one shell — two conventional distillation columns that are connected in series as required when separating a multicomponent feed mixture into three pure products.  Figure 1. Shown here is a side view of a simple dividing-wall column (DWC) that is...
August 1, 2014
Several market conditions, including availability of light crude oilds in the U.S., low natural-gas prices and improving macroeconomics, are driving debottlenecking projects related to columns in both petroleum refining and chemical settings. Fortunately, the process-simulation tools that can be used to perform the front-end of these projects have advanced significantly in the past several years...
August 1, 2014
New distillation columns are getting much larger. The history of column sizes, and design and construction issues associated with large columns were recently addressed at the AIChE Spring Meeting (New Orleans, La.; March 30 to April 3) by Dan Summers of Sulzer Chemtech (Winterthur, Switzerland;, Bob Miller of UOP (Des Plaines,Ill.; and Henry Kister of Fluor Corp. (Irving Tex....
July 1, 2014
The further developed CF Series candle filters are particularly suitable for purifying industrial wastewater with low solids content. They have been specially developed for the filtration of liquids with solid concentration of less than 1% — an...
July 1, 2014
Water scarcity is one of the most serious global challenges of our time. Desalination and water reuse are effective and reliable means to provide new water resources. Among the many methods available to treat water, reverse osmosis (RO) has widely demonstrated superior reliability and cost-effectiveness at removing dissolved species, such as salts and trace contaminants. This article reviews the...
July 1, 2014
In May, this company officially launched its Bio-Cel XL submerged module for membrane bioreactors (MBRs) at IFAT 2014 in Munich, and already received its first order during the show. This new XL-version of...
June 1, 2014
Sour-water strippers (SWSs) are common in petroleum refineries, as well as gas-processing and gasification plants, and are used to remove ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from contaminated process waters. The design of these units is typically done using the equilibrium or theoretical stage method. The actual number of trays is determined from the required theoretical stages, using tray...
June 1, 2014
At the 2011 Spring AIChE meeting (Chicago, Ill.), Sean Hennigan of BP gave a presentation regarding a column troubleshoot that yielded a counterintuitive result. A column bottleneck was ultimately traced to the presence of a vacuum cleaner in a tray downcomer. I wondered out loud, after that presentation, whether all tray downcomers should be equipped with vacuum cleaners to reduce liquid back-ups. At the...
June 1, 2014
Purair SKY ceiling-mounted filtration units (photo) provide personnel protection in areas where hazardous substances are handled. Outfitted with a dynamic filtration chamber and a sliding filter clamp that...
May 1, 2014
FRI is lucky to have survived a simple valve-tray project. A few years ago, the low-pressure (LP) test column stood empty, because there were no trays ready to be installed. The intention was to install a set of new valve trays of a very simple design, but when the column was empty, neither a design nor the actual trays existed. It took five months for the trays to be designed, drawn, fabricated, shipped...
April 1, 2014
In my October 2011 column (A window into kettle reboiler secrets, Chem. Eng. p. 28) I briefly described FRI’s early work using two windows on its industrial-size kettle reboiler. Subsequent to that, FRI had performed appreciable heat-transfer work. All of that work was reported to FRI’s members at all-day kettle-reboiler symposia, which were held in Galveston, Tex. on October 2 and in Tokyo on...
February 1, 2014
I felt somewhat insulted when he said, “At universities, we do the difficult work and we leave the easy work for industry.” I had asked a question of a speaker at the November 2013 AIChE meeting. The speaker answered the question. Then, a gentleman in the first row chimed in with his “difficult/easy comment.” For most of my career, I have performed research and development work for...
January 1, 2014
FRI’s membership has been growing steadily since 2006. As a result, I have more bosses every year; at present, 78. I receive input from them in several ways. They attend quarterly meetings. They respond to surveys and votes. They send emails. They call. Primarily, this column describes the projects that are presently of the most interest to the membership. In 2013, 8-ft-dia. two-pass valve trays were...
December 1, 2013
A plant turnaround is always challenging in the chemical process industries (CPI). But with proper planning and reliable procedures in place, last-minute time crunches and failures can be prevented. When haste combines with faulty methods, costly problems result. This article presents three examples of actual plant turnarounds and the lessons that can be learned from them.   Case study No. 1...
December 1, 2013
Testing in filtration processes is critical for determining the properties of solids being filtered and the ease or difficulty of the filtration. In addition, laboratory testing is important in specifying filter media, filter aids, filter area, cake space needed and cake discharge techniques. Experimental data gathered in the laboratory help in the design of the full filtration system needed for...
November 1, 2013
The Rotoform G4 builds on more than 30 years’ process experience and introduces a number of features relevant to hygiene-critical applications, including easier cleaning, enhanced bearing seals and a lubrication-free...
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