Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Separation (Liquid-Liquid & Gas-Liquid)

Displaying 161 - 180 of 291 stories.
March 28, 2011
This firm has modified its spiral-wound membrane elements in a way that enables reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants to operate at pressures of up to 120 bars — considerably higher than...
March 28, 2011
The Model 740 Membrane Test System (MTS) is the first commercial instrument designed specifically for measurement of the through-thickness resistance and conductivity of ionomer and polymer electrolyte...
March 28, 2011
Siemens Water Technologies The Petro membrane bioreactor (MBR) system (photo) has been specially designed for the petroleum, petrochemical and other chemical process industries (CPI). It is a wastewater treatment process that combines various biological treatment processes with an integrated...
March 28, 2011
The Puron Plus membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is a skid-mounted packaged plant that provides customers with a full scope of supply from prescreening and biological treatment through to the final membrane...
March 28, 2011
Elga Process Water This firm’s new range of membrane plants for the surface-treatment industries feature CeraMem industrial strength membranes (photo). Compared to conventional...
March 1, 2011
Considering that Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) has been performing distillation research since 1954, don’t we have all the answers yet? Not according to the membership. The vendors of trays and packings have had very aggressive R&D programs. New and interesting products have appeared annually. In addition to the testing of such products in hydrocarbon service and at commercial diameters, the...
February 1, 2011
The fact that I was 150 ft up, on the outside of an extraction column, in January, in Canada, in a 20-mph wind, was not the worst part of the experience. The worst part was that the column was not working properly, and I had helped to design it. Like most industrial columns, this one had vertical ladders on its side. Each ladder led to a landing, or so-called deck. Each ladder was surrounded by a cage. The...
January 1, 2011
Some columns sway with the wind; some columns sway with the waves. In fact, hundreds of columns now reside offshore, on platforms and on barges. Most dry and sweeten gases. Some distill. The trays and packing distributors of such columns are regularly, appreciably out of level. Sloshing occurs. The packings are regularly, appreciably off vertical. Some of what we know about the design of such columns...
January 1, 2011
The reboiler generally supplies most of the energy required to effect component separation. If too much heat is supplied, the tower may flood; conversely, if too little heat is available, separation performance may decrease via poor reflux ratio (pinching), excessive weeping or poor tray action. Proper design of reboiling systems involves coordinating aspects both outside and inside the tower. This article...
December 1, 2010
During the first three days of last month’s AIChE Annual Meeting (November 7–12; Salt Lake City, Utah), like many attendees, I hopped from session to session listening to those papers that were of the most interest to me. Generally, I attended the energy, environmental and separation sessions. I saw many graphs, tables, process flow diagrams and conclusions. I am guessing that almost half of...
November 1, 2010
In obtaining a degree or even a professional license in chemical engineering, there is little, if any, mention of facial hair. Nevertheless, that aspect of my appearance was surprisingly pivotal at one particular moment in my career. At that time, I had zero facial hair — no moustache, no beard, and no long sideburns — and I was a liquid-liquid extraction expert. It was therefore obvious to...
October 1, 2010
Crystallization is a key purification technique for various sectors of the chemical process industries (CPI). Several approaches for industrial crystallization have evolved over time and highly specialized crystallizer designs have been developed, especially in long-established industries. Solution crystallization is an important unit operation because the process can generate high-purity products from...
October 1, 2010
Every distillation engineer west of the River Neretva is familiar with the work of Professor Zarko Olujic. His distillation laboratory at the Technical University of Delft (The Netherlands; is one of the largest and best facilities in the history of distillation. His work is typically funded by a consortium of companies that, most recently, included Bayer, BASF, Evonik, DSM, Montz...
September 1, 2010
The deposition and accumulation of suspended and dissolved particles on membrane surfaces leads to performance loss. Fouling can dramatically reduce the efficiency and economic benefits of a membrane process. The type of fouling and how strongly it appears depends on several parameters, including the following: • Nature of solutes and solvents • Membrane process • Pore-size distribution...
September 1, 2010
Starting around 1970, many new contacting devices became available for use in distillation, absorption and stripping columns. Those devices included high-performance random packings, structured packings, high-capacity structured packings, augmented crossflow trays, counterflow trays and cocurrent flow trays. At the request of FRI’s membership, many of those devices were tested in FRI’s 4-ft and...
August 1, 2010
My first distillation dream occurred about 30 years ago, and yet, I recall it as vividly as if it were yesterday. In it, my distillation-column design work started with a vapor-liquid thermodynamic model that was widely regarded as perfect. I had operating data from ten similar columns. The feed composition was precisely known, and there were no alternative feedstocks. The overhead specification was easy...
August 1, 2010
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM; Halle, Germany; have developed ceramic membranes with uniform pore structure and tight pore-size distribution, which makes them more stable and delivers considerably higher...
July 1, 2010
In 1952, 37 companies established Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI). Most of those original members are now gone or absorbed by other companies. Nevertheless, their goal was to study distillation in columns having diameters and heights that were similar to industrial columns. The columns of the world were getting larger and more numerous and were too often being designed using bench-top apparatuses and...
June 1, 2010
In a distillation column tray, vapor passes upward through liquid that is flowing across a horizontal perforated plate. Vapor passing through the perforated plate forms a two-phase mixture with the liquid and enables mass transfer contacting. This mixture is typically quite turbulent. Tray design must allow the turbulent liquid to fall away from the rising vapor in the space above the tray, while also...
June 1, 2010
I have 70 supervisors. It sometimes feels like I am pulled in 70 different directions — north, south, east, west, up, down and inside-out. But even after two years at this job, I can still hold my hand steady — if I put it in a vice. Nevertheless, I feel that I have the best job in the distillation world; I am technical director at Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI; Stillwater, Okla....
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