Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Separation (Liquid-Liquid & Gas-Liquid) :: Distillation

Displaying 1 - 20 of 49 stories.
August 1, 2014
A dividing wall column (DWC) is an atypical distillation column with an internal, vertical partition wall that effectively accommodates — within one shell — two conventional distillation columns that are connected in series as required when separating a multicomponent feed mixture into three pure products.  Figure 1. Shown here is a side view of a simple dividing-wall column (DWC) that is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/New-Horizons-For-Dividing-Wall-Columns_12027.html
August 1, 2014
Several market conditions, including availability of light crude oilds in the U.S., low natural-gas prices and improving macroeconomics, are driving debottlenecking projects related to columns in both petroleum refining and chemical settings. Fortunately, the process-simulation tools that can be used to perform the front-end of these projects have advanced significantly in the past several years...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Distillation-Column-Thermal-Optimization-Employing-Simulation-Software_12028.html
August 1, 2014
New distillation columns are getting much larger. The history of column sizes, and design and construction issues associated with large columns were recently addressed at the AIChE Spring Meeting (New Orleans, La.; March 30 to April 3) by Dan Summers of Sulzer Chemtech (Winterthur, Switzerland; www.sulzer.com), Bob Miller of UOP (Des Plaines,Ill.; www.uop.com) and Henry Kister of Fluor Corp. (Irving Tex....
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Mega-columns-mega-issues_12029.html
June 1, 2014
Sour-water strippers (SWSs) are common in petroleum refineries, as well as gas-processing and gasification plants, and are used to remove ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from contaminated process waters. The design of these units is typically done using the equilibrium or theoretical stage method. The actual number of trays is determined from the required theoretical stages, using tray...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Fine-Tune-the-Design-of-Sour-water-Strippers-Using-Rate-based-Simulation_11832.html
June 1, 2014
At the 2011 Spring AIChE meeting (Chicago, Ill.), Sean Hennigan of BP gave a presentation regarding a column troubleshoot that yielded a counterintuitive result. A column bottleneck was ultimately traced to the presence of a vacuum cleaner in a tray downcomer. I wondered out loud, after that presentation, whether all tray downcomers should be equipped with vacuum cleaners to reduce liquid back-ups. At the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Counterintuitive-revamp-results_11837.html
May 1, 2014
FRI is lucky to have survived a simple valve-tray project. A few years ago, the low-pressure (LP) test column stood empty, because there were no trays ready to be installed. The intention was to install a set of new valve trays of a very simple design, but when the column was empty, neither a design nor the actual trays existed. It took five months for the trays to be designed, drawn, fabricated, shipped...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Plan-and-re-plan_11736.html
April 1, 2014
In my October 2011 column (A window into kettle reboiler secrets, Chem. Eng. p. 28) I briefly described FRI’s early work using two windows on its industrial-size kettle reboiler. Subsequent to that, FRI had performed appreciable heat-transfer work. All of that work was reported to FRI’s members at all-day kettle-reboiler symposia, which were held in Galveston, Tex. on October 2 and in Tokyo on...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/A-better-look-into-kettle-reboilers_11625.html
January 1, 2014
FRI’s membership has been growing steadily since 2006. As a result, I have more bosses every year; at present, 78. I receive input from them in several ways. They attend quarterly meetings. They respond to surveys and votes. They send emails. They call. Primarily, this column describes the projects that are presently of the most interest to the membership. In 2013, 8-ft-dia. two-pass valve trays were...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Learning-more-about-distillation_11346.html
December 1, 2013
A plant turnaround is always challenging in the chemical process industries (CPI). But with proper planning and reliable procedures in place, last-minute time crunches and failures can be prevented. When haste combines with faulty methods, costly problems result. This article presents three examples of actual plant turnarounds and the lessons that can be learned from them.   Case study No. 1...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Plant-Revamps-and-Turnarounds-Some-Lessons-Learned_11266.html
November 1, 2013
A recent book by Lieberman [1] stresses that to combat the environmental crisis that our planet is facing, it is essential to make existing units work adequately and efficiently. Equipment that malfunctions or limps along limits production and does not permit good energy and equipment utilization. This, in turn, leads to higher environmental degradation, not to mention plant downtime and lost production...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Troubleshooting-and-Solving-a-Sour-Water-Stripper-Problem_11171.html
September 1, 2013
Many chemical engineers study or employ distillation trays, gas-liquid separators and spray nozzles. Most of those engineers have studied or employed force balances around liquid droplets suspended in upward-flowing vapor streams. Considering a droplet of size “ d, ” for the droplet to be suspended motionless, the summed forces of drag and buoyancy must equal exactly the force of gravity. At...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/The-science-of-droplets_10949.html
May 1, 2013
For separation columns, this multidisciplinary engineering company offers a high-performance random packing called Cascade Mini Ring, which is also available with a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Column-internals-for-efficient-separations_10481.html
November 1, 2012
The GEA 2H MASSdek structured packings have been used for such applications as gas scrubbing, exhaust-air cleaning, desorption (stripping) and rectification. Compared to conventional packings, the 2H MASSdek packings are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Structured-packing-for-gas-scrubber-applications_9911.html
October 1, 2012
The patented Plate Molecular Still is capable of distilling large quantities of product (10 ton/h and more), under medium- or high-vacuum conditions. The system is suitable for applications involving...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/An-economical-way-to-distill-large-volumes-of-products_9814.html
September 1, 2012
The patented Plate Molecular Still is capable of distilling large quantities of product (10 ton/h and more), under medium- or high-vacuum conditions. The system is suitable for applications involving...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/An-economical-way-to-distill-large-volumes-of-products_9666.html
June 1, 2012
A variety of performance problems can arise in distillation towers during startup. Many are caused by equipment, hardware or process conditions. Hardware issues may be related to instrumentation, tower internals or ancillaries. Instrumentation malfunctions are also common during startup and are predominantly related to liquid level indicators, online analysis of key components and in some cases...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Distillation-Avoid-Problems-During-Tower-Startup_9389.html
March 1, 2012
Distillation is one of the most extensively used operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). It is a highly energy-intensive unit operation, and continuously rising energy costs make it imperative to look for ways to reduce energy requirements. Some energy-saving configurations can increase capital investment costs, so the benefits need to be weighed carefully. Various techniques, such as heat...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Distillation-Optimization-By-Vapor-Recompression_9064.html
September 1, 2011
Condensate pots are commonly used on the condensing sides of some reboilers, such as those that are heated by steam or refrigerant vapor. These pots provide a liquid seal that prevents uncondensed vapor from blowing out of the reboiler into the condensate system. A break in this seal can result in heat transfer losses. With steam reboilers, blowing vapor into the condensate header may also lead to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Reboiler-Condensate-Drums-Silencing-Hydraulic-Hammer_8438.html
July 1, 2011
I have an ongoing dispute with a longtime colleague, Bob Miller. I said he ruined my new safety boots. He said he didn’t. Bob was a young, fearless distillation engineer at a time when our extraction engineer refused to take a trip to Japan to inspect new trays going into an old extractor. I called Bob into my office and asked him to take the trip, even with zero extraction experience. Bob accepted...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/When-troubleshooting-the-extractor_8158.html
July 1, 2011
Distillation columns are often workhorses in the chemical process industries (CPI), and at times, it is necessary to physically inspect the interior of a column. This article demonstrates what an inspection can reveal, by sharing the experience of actual fractionation-tower inspections in a petroleum refinery. The points mentioned are intended to provide guidance to future tower inspectors, so that they...
http://www.chemengonline.com/processing_and_handling/sep_liquid_liquid_and_gas_liquid/distillation/Inspecting-Fractionation-Towers_8214.html
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