Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Thermal & Energy Management

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January 1, 2009
Coal is typically cleaned by gravity separation to reduce ash and pyrite content, with flotation used to recover fines. Various methods have been applied to disperse fine clay particles from the surface of coal particles and thus improve coal flotation performance. A team of researchers from the Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia (Adelaide;, has studied the effect...
January 1, 2009
A new method for vaporizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) that is more environmentally friendly than the traditional submerged combustion vaporization (SCV) process is being offered by Black & Veatch (B&V; Overland Park, Kan.; In an SCV process, LNG is passed through stainless steel tubes in a water bath that is warmed by sparging combustion gases from a submerged, gas-fired burner. The...
December 1, 2008
The thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons is an essential parameter that needs to be known when designing heat transfer equipment. Presented here is a simple-to-use correlation that was developed for predicting thermal conductivities of liquid paraffin hydrocarbons, petroleum fractions and atmospheric natural hydrocarbon gases as a function of temperature and molecular weight or relative density. Results...
December 1, 2008
In a fired thermal fluid heater, a thermal fluid is heated by the metal surfaces of a fired heater or fluegas heat-recovery exchanger. Generally, the heat input rate is controlled to achieve some desired bulk-fluid temperature exiting the heater. However, in being heated to the outlet setpoint, the fluid film in contact with the heating surface is always exposed to a higher temperature than the bulk fluid...
December 1, 2008
Organic-based thermal fluids provide relatively trouble-free service for significant periods of time. However, there comes a time when any fluid (either aromatic- or aliphatic-based) needs to be replaced. Since aromatic-based fluids generally cost more and are complicated to dispose of, they receive far more attention than aliphatic-based fluids when the time comes for replacement. Aliphatic-based fluids...
December 1, 2008
ESK Ceramics GmbH & Co. KG (Kempten,, together with Pfaudler Werke GmbH (Schwetzingen, both Germany;, has launched a new plate heat exchanger made of silicon carbide. ESK is producing the ceramic heat exchangers on a large scale for the first time, and Pfaudler will handle global sales of the components. Three different models are available — sealed, semi-welded and...
November 1, 2008
A very common heat exchanger in the chemical process industries (CPI) is the vertical thermosiphon reboiler (VTR; Figure 1). Due to size and fluid-flow restrictions, however, its heat transfer rate is often quite low. The subcooled region formed at the thermosiphon’s tube-bundle base usually causes reduction in the tubes’ average heat-transfer coefficient. Improvements in performance can be...
October 28, 2008
UOP LLC (Des Plaines, Ill.;, a Honeywell company, announced that it was awarded a $1.5-million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop economically viable technology to stabilize pyrolysis oil from second-generation biomass feedstocks for use as a renewable fuel source. Biomass pyrolysis oil is made from second-generation feedstocks like the residuals from agricultural and...
October 15, 2008
As environmental regulations continue to get tighter regarding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other emissions, makers of burners and incinerators are working to develop equipment that not only meets or exceeds permissible emission levels, but also surpasses traditional operational capabilities. "It is true that environmental regulations are pushing us to come up with better technology," says...
October 15, 2008
UOP LLC (Des Plaines, Ill.; will form a joint venture (JV) with Ensyn Corp. (Wilmington, Del.; to offer technology for the production of fuel oil and transportation fuels from second-generation biomass, such as forest and agricultural residues. Ensyn long ago commercialized a fast pyrolysis process for converting cellulosic waste to bio-oil and operates several plants that...
October 15, 2008
As part of the European BioDME project, Haldor Topsøe A/S (Lyngby, Denmark; and Chemrec will design and build a new plant for producing dimethyl ether (DME). Located at the Smurfit Kappa...
October 15, 2008
Pumps Centrifugal pumps with cast or forged steel casings are typically appropriate for systems with large flowrates Positive displacement pumps frequently can handle smaller flowrates of less than 100 gal/min Sealless pumps (canned motor or magnetic drive) avoid the installation of mechanical seals A typical centrifugal pump can be expected to deliver operational head of about: where g is gravitational...
October 15, 2008
Webinar: Heat Transfer Optimum Performance in Thermal Fluid Heating Systems: The importance of heat flux and film temperature Date: November 6, 2008 | Time: 11am EST In circulating thermal-fluid heating systems, the rate of heat transfer is typically controlled to maintain a desired outlet-temperature setpoint of the fluid. However, it is the temperature of the fluid film in contact with the heater walls...
September 15, 2008
Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control. Third Edition. By Martin B. Hocking. 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803. Web: 2006. 830 pages, $95.95. Reviewed by V. N. Lad, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Gujarat, India Sustainable development that incorporates energy efficient production practices and environmentally friendly process design are responsibilities...
September 15, 2008
Consol Energy Inc. (Pittsburgh, Penn.;, the nation’s largest producer of bituminous coal, and Synthesis Energy Systems Inc. (SES, Houston, Tex.; have formed a joint venture to build a coal-to-gasoline plant near Benwood, W.Va., close to Consol’s Shoemaker complex. Scheduled for startup in 2011, it will be the first U.S. plant to use SES’s U-Gas...
September 15, 2008
Rentech, Inc. (Los Angeles, Calif.; has produced its first run of jet fuel from its Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) product demonstration unit (PDU) in Commerce City, Colo...
August 18, 2008
Siemens’ (Erlangen, Germany; coal gasification technology has been selected for Canada’s first low-CO2 IGCC power plant. EPCOR Power Generation is planning to build an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) featuring carbon capture and storage in Genesee near Edmonton, Alberta. The demonstration plant, with an installed capacity of approximately 270...
August 15, 2008
As fuel prices continue to rise, energy management is everyone’s business Market trends suggest that the demand for energy resources will rise dramatically over the next 25 years with the global demand for all energy sources forecast to grow by 57% and the U.S. demand for all types of energy expected to increase by 31% (see Figure 1). By 2030, it is expected that 56% of the world’s energy use...
August 15, 2008
A thermochemical process for converting biomass to ethanol, other biofuels and chemical intermediates will be developed jointly by Dow Chemical Co. (Midland, Mich.; and the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, Golden, Colo.; Under the agreement, NREL will combine its expertise in biomass gasification with Dow’s catalytic process for the...
August 15, 2008
In an economy with soaring raw material and rising heat-transfer-fluid prices, fluid manufacturers are getting more requests for high-performance products that will do the required job for a longer time period. As a result, fluid manufacturers are working to develop new products with advanced chemistries and boost service programs in an effort to help customers lower their costs and extend the life of the...
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