Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 1 - 20 of 533 stories.
October 1, 2014
Numerous strategies and options for both dilute- and dense-phase conveying systems are presented here   Pneumatic conveying is a ubiquitous mode of conveying bulk solids in a wide range of industries, including chemicals, plastics, grain, food, agricultural, mining, power and cement. In recent years, the capacities, distances and variety of materials to be conveyed have increased, often approaching...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pneumatic-Conveying-Optimal-System-Design-Operation-and-Control_12214.html
October 1, 2014
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a chemical precursor used in the production of several industrially relevant compounds, such as adiponitrile for nylon production, methyl methacrylate for polymer manufacturing, sodium cyanide for gold recovery and for the production of methionine, which is used as a feed additive. HCN is mainly produced though the Andrussow process, named for developer Leonid Andrussow. The...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Hydrogen-Cyanide-Production_12229.html
October 1, 2014
What are the steps to finding the best pressure sensor for a particular application? That’s a challenge faced by many a young engineer just out of school. Engineering school teaches a great deal of theory, but what is the best way to choose when so many things that affect the decision are not obvious, and not necessarily part of the formal curriculum? This article reviews a series of questions and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pressure-Transmitter-Basics-Selection-Guidelines_12231.html
October 1, 2014
Pressure transmitters are widely used throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Although pressure in and of itself is an important process parameter, differential pressure (DP) measurements enable the inference of other important parameters as well. This article presents a concise overview of how DP transmitters can be put to work in CPI plants.   Definitions Here are some important common...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pressure-Transmitter-Basics-DP-Transmitters_12232.html
October 1, 2014
Reactive chemicals and intermediates are used extensively in the chemical process industries (CPI). Hazardous chemical reactivity can be defined as “any chemical reaction with the potential to exhibit rates of increase in temperature and/or pressure too high to be absorbed by the environment surrounding the system” [1]. Reactive materials can be classified into two groups: self-reacting...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Reactive-Chemistry-in-the-CPI_12233.html
October 1, 2014
From plastics and synthetics to fertilizers and fuel, the general public takes for granted so much of what the chemical process industries (CPI) produces, and the risks associated with CPI production facilities are not typically considered. That is, until the next headline-creating industrial catastrophe occurs. The human toll of such disasters plays out across ruined lives, devastated communities and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Next-Step-Change-in-Process-Safety_12234.html
September 1, 2014
Hayward Flow Control Thermoplastic butterfly valve enables many stopping positions With its advanced, one-piece thermoplastic design and construction, the patent-pending BYV Series Butterfly Valve offers a variety of design advances, including a hand lever that features a 72-spline interlock mechanism that allows for 19 stopping positions (every 5 deg). Pneumatic or electric actuators are available...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Focus-on-Valves_12117.html
September 1, 2014
Second only to electric motors, centrifugal pumps are the most common machine used in the chemical process industries (CPI). Pumps are serving in every conceivable fluid application. They move all manner of fluids from wastewater to paper pulp, from ultra-clean and purest pharmaceutical liquids to crude oils laden with a great variety of contaminants. Hundreds of millions of these pumps are fitted with...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Mechanical-Seals-Update-Pharmaceutical-and-Food-Applications_12123.html
September 1, 2014
The compound 1,4-butanediol (BDO) is a versatile intermediate for the chemical industry. Its largest derivative product is tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is used to make spandex fibers, resins, solvents and printing inks. The second largest product is polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), which is used to make high-performance materials, electronics and automotive equipment. BDO can be produced from different...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/14-Butanediol-BDO-from-Bio-Succinic-Acid_12126.html
September 1, 2014
Magnetically driven (mag drive) centrifugal pumps have been in use since 1947 when the first magdrive pump was developed. Mag drives have always been the workhorse pump in applications with corrosive and often toxic fluid applications, and particularly over the last 20 years they’ve become more common in the chemical process industries (CPI). A typical mag-drive pump is comprised of a magnetically...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Magnetically-Driven-Pumps-An-overview_12130.html
September 1, 2014
Water and wastewater treatment are extremely important at liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and other industries that are blossoming due to the shale-gas boom. Engineering concerns are similar to those of other industrial water-treatment and power-generation systems, but with the added issue of adequate treatment for entrained hydrocarbons. With proper system design and operation, plant personnel can...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Modern-Water-Treatment-Challenges_12133.html
August 1, 2014
The organic compound 1,3-butadiene is a petrochemical commodity used as a raw material for the production of rubbers and plastics, such as polybutadiene rubber (PR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These materials are mainly applied in the manufacture of automotive parts, tires and cables. Also, 1,3-butadiene is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Extracting-13-Butadiene-from-a-C4-Stream_12008.html
August 1, 2014
A dividing wall column (DWC) is an atypical distillation column with an internal, vertical partition wall that effectively accommodates — within one shell — two conventional distillation columns that are connected in series as required when separating a multicomponent feed mixture into three pure products.  Figure 1. Shown here is a side view of a simple dividing-wall column (DWC) that is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/New-Horizons-For-Dividing-Wall-Columns_12027.html
August 1, 2014
Several market conditions, including availability of light crude oilds in the U.S., low natural-gas prices and improving macroeconomics, are driving debottlenecking projects related to columns in both petroleum refining and chemical settings. Fortunately, the process-simulation tools that can be used to perform the front-end of these projects have advanced significantly in the past several years...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-Column-Thermal-Optimization-Employing-Simulation-Software_12028.html
August 1, 2014
Historically, many large industrial facilities, including power plants, have relied on once-through cooling, in which the entire cooling water volume flows through the plant heat exchangers and then is discharged to the original source. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, D.C.) has, for over a decade, been developing regulations to protect aquatic life from impingement and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cooling-Towers-Managing-Tighter-Water-Discharge-Regulations_12030.html
August 1, 2014
The chemical process industries (CPI) have many applications that require classifying or separating solid materials. Examples of separation or classification processes include those operations that attempt to isolate specific material fractions according to particle size, scalp off the coarse fraction of a material stream, de-dust the fine fraction of a material stream or remove the contamination from a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dry-Separation-Methods_12033.html
August 1, 2014
Laboratories, such as those used for quality control in a production environment and those in research and development, are an integral part of the chemical process industries (CPI). Everyday demands of business can easily overtake safety when it comes to setting priorities in the laboratory. Deadlines must be met. Samples must be analyzed. Questions must be answered — and quickly. But even for the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-Safety-Checklist-For-Laboratories_12034.html
July 1, 2014
May Technology Profile I would like to ask the following questions and offer the following comments regarding the May 2014 Technology Profile (Ethanol from the Direct Gasification of Biomass, p. 43). • What is the overall yield of ethanol (in gallons per pound of dry biomass), as well as the total cost of the process (in dollars per gallon of ethanol), and its energy efficiency (energy content of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/July-Letters-Ethanol-from-the-direct-gasification-of-biomass_11905.html
July 1, 2014
New safety and environmental regulations, longer plant uptime and changes in maintenance practices have created new requirements across the chemical process industries (CPI). Among the plant equipment affected by these changes are control valves, since they are used in numerous applications in a variety of process conditions. Figures 1 and 2 show typical control valves installed in CPI plants. The primary...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Control-Valve-Selection-True-Cost-Savings-Are-Available_11915.html
July 1, 2014
Pressing global issues, such as climate change and declining energy security, have led to an increasing interest in the use of renewable feedstocks for fuel production. These feedstocks include lignocellulosic materials, such as waste biomass from the agriculture and forest industries. Ethanol is commonly produced by fermentation of sugars from agricultural feedstock — mostly corn and sugarcane...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Producing-Ethanol-from-Lignocellulosic-Biomass_11916.html
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