Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 1 - 20 of 527 stories.
September 1, 2014
Hayward Flow Control Thermoplastic butterfly valve enables many stopping positions With its advanced, one-piece thermoplastic design and construction, the patent-pending BYV Series Butterfly Valve offers a variety of design advances, including a hand lever that features a 72-spline interlock mechanism that allows for 19 stopping positions (every 5 deg). Pneumatic or electric actuators are available...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Focus-on-Valves_12117.html
September 1, 2014
Second only to electric motors, centrifugal pumps are the most common machine used in the chemical process industries (CPI). Pumps are serving in every conceivable fluid application. They move all manner of fluids from wastewater to paper pulp, from ultra-clean and purest pharmaceutical liquids to crude oils laden with a great variety of contaminants. Hundreds of millions of these pumps are fitted with...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Mechanical-Seals-Update-Pharmaceutical-and-Food-Applications_12123.html
September 1, 2014
The compound 1,4-butanediol (BDO) is a versatile intermediate for the chemical industry. Its largest derivative product is tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is used to make spandex fibers, resins, solvents and printing inks. The second largest product is polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), which is used to make high-performance materials, electronics and automotive equipment. BDO can be produced from different...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/14-Butanediol-BDO-from-Bio-Succinic-Acid_12126.html
September 1, 2014
Magnetically driven (mag drive) centrifugal pumps have been in use since 1947 when the first magdrive pump was developed. Mag drives have always been the workhorse pump in applications with corrosive and often toxic fluid applications, and particularly over the last 20 years they’ve become more common in the chemical process industries (CPI). A typical mag-drive pump is comprised of a magnetically...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Magnetically-Driven-Pumps-An-overview_12130.html
September 1, 2014
Water and wastewater treatment are extremely important at liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and other industries that are blossoming due to the shale-gas boom. Engineering concerns are similar to those of other industrial water-treatment and power-generation systems, but with the added issue of adequate treatment for entrained hydrocarbons. With proper system design and operation, plant personnel can...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Modern-Water-Treatment-Challenges_12133.html
August 1, 2014
The organic compound 1,3-butadiene is a petrochemical commodity used as a raw material for the production of rubbers and plastics, such as polybutadiene rubber (PR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These materials are mainly applied in the manufacture of automotive parts, tires and cables. Also, 1,3-butadiene is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Extracting-13-Butadiene-from-a-C4-Stream_12008.html
August 1, 2014
A dividing wall column (DWC) is an atypical distillation column with an internal, vertical partition wall that effectively accommodates — within one shell — two conventional distillation columns that are connected in series as required when separating a multicomponent feed mixture into three pure products.  Figure 1. Shown here is a side view of a simple dividing-wall column (DWC) that is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/New-Horizons-For-Dividing-Wall-Columns_12027.html
August 1, 2014
Several market conditions, including availability of light crude oilds in the U.S., low natural-gas prices and improving macroeconomics, are driving debottlenecking projects related to columns in both petroleum refining and chemical settings. Fortunately, the process-simulation tools that can be used to perform the front-end of these projects have advanced significantly in the past several years...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-Column-Thermal-Optimization-Employing-Simulation-Software_12028.html
August 1, 2014
Historically, many large industrial facilities, including power plants, have relied on once-through cooling, in which the entire cooling water volume flows through the plant heat exchangers and then is discharged to the original source. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, D.C.) has, for over a decade, been developing regulations to protect aquatic life from impingement and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cooling-Towers-Managing-Tighter-Water-Discharge-Regulations_12030.html
August 1, 2014
The chemical process industries (CPI) have many applications that require classifying or separating solid materials. Examples of separation or classification processes include those operations that attempt to isolate specific material fractions according to particle size, scalp off the coarse fraction of a material stream, de-dust the fine fraction of a material stream or remove the contamination from a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dry-Separation-Methods_12033.html
August 1, 2014
Laboratories, such as those used for quality control in a production environment and those in research and development, are an integral part of the chemical process industries (CPI). Everyday demands of business can easily overtake safety when it comes to setting priorities in the laboratory. Deadlines must be met. Samples must be analyzed. Questions must be answered — and quickly. But even for the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-Safety-Checklist-For-Laboratories_12034.html
July 1, 2014
May Technology Profile I would like to ask the following questions and offer the following comments regarding the May 2014 Technology Profile (Ethanol from the Direct Gasification of Biomass, p. 43). • What is the overall yield of ethanol (in gallons per pound of dry biomass), as well as the total cost of the process (in dollars per gallon of ethanol), and its energy efficiency (energy content of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/July-Letters-Ethanol-from-the-direct-gasification-of-biomass_11905.html
July 1, 2014
New safety and environmental regulations, longer plant uptime and changes in maintenance practices have created new requirements across the chemical process industries (CPI). Among the plant equipment affected by these changes are control valves, since they are used in numerous applications in a variety of process conditions. Figures 1 and 2 show typical control valves installed in CPI plants. The primary...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Control-Valve-Selection-True-Cost-Savings-Are-Available_11915.html
July 1, 2014
Pressing global issues, such as climate change and declining energy security, have led to an increasing interest in the use of renewable feedstocks for fuel production. These feedstocks include lignocellulosic materials, such as waste biomass from the agriculture and forest industries. Ethanol is commonly produced by fermentation of sugars from agricultural feedstock — mostly corn and sugarcane...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Producing-Ethanol-from-Lignocellulosic-Biomass_11916.html
July 1, 2014
In the face of intense market pressures, companies are increasingly requiring their engineering organizations to complete capital projects more quickly, while spending less capital and creating systems that cost less to operate over the long run. They are also asked to do this with fewer engineers. While this “do more with less” philosophy may not seem feasible to some, it is possible when the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Project-Optimization-Through-Engineering_11925.html
July 1, 2014
Dust in the chemical processing industries (CPI) is present in numerous operations, including powder processing; the transport of materials on belt or rotary-screw conveyors; grinding materials in giant shredders and pulverizers; machining, sawing, grinding or sanding operations; dumping bags of materials into reactors; handling coating materials; as well as the processing of pharmaceuticals and foods. An...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dust-Control-in-the-Chemical-Processing-Industries_11927.html
June 1, 2014
Adipic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is widely applied to the production of nylon, polyurethanes, plasticizers and other polymers. Its main use is as one of the raw materials for the manufacture of the polyamide nylon 6,6. In 2012, 80% of the total adipic-acid demand was directed to this application. The traditional production method for adipic acid is based on the oxidation of cyclohexane, a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Bio-based-adipic-acid_11822.html
June 1, 2014
Sour-water strippers (SWSs) are common in petroleum refineries, as well as gas-processing and gasification plants, and are used to remove ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from contaminated process waters. The design of these units is typically done using the equilibrium or theoretical stage method. The actual number of trays is determined from the required theoretical stages, using tray...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Fine-Tune-the-Design-of-Sour-water-Strippers-Using-Rate-based-Simulation_11832.html
June 1, 2014
Pressure-relief solutions are commonly used in the chemical process industries (CPI) to ensure safe working environments for personnel and to protect equipment and assets. Relief valves (RV) and rupture discs (RD) are the most commonly used pressure-safety devices and are generally specified and selected according to application-specific requirements. For pressure-system designers looking for viable...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Combining-the-use-of-Rupture-Discs-with-Relief-Valves_11833.html
June 1, 2014
Ensuring the security of industrial control systems (ICS) can be a daunting and complex task, requiring expertise and experience in several areas from a variety of contributors. The rapid pace of improvements to both technology and practice adds to the challenge. Finally, the amount and complexity of information, guidance and advice that is available can easily become overwhelming. Rather than focusing on...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Industrial-Control-Systems-Security-The-Owner-Operators-Challenge_11834.html
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