Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 101 - 120 of 527 stories.
March 1, 2013
One of the most unsettling experiences in a company’s existence may be the surprise regulatory inspection by a representative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a State Environmental Agency. What if you refuse to let them in? What are your rights? How can you best ensure that the inspection goes smoothly? This article briefly summarizes the government’s environmental...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Responding-to-Environmental-Inspections_10297.html
March 1, 2013
Propylene is typically considered a co-product in steam crackers and fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) processes, which are primarily driven by ethylene and motor gasoline production, respectively. Recently, most U.S. ethylene producers have shifted to lighter feedstocks due to the availability of low-cost natural gas and natural-gas liquids (NGLs) from shale. This shift drastically decreases propylene...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Propylene-Production-via-Metathesis_10298.html
March 1, 2013
Changing out used heat-transfer fluid is critical to the efficiency of a heat-transfer fluid system. A well-operated heat-transfer-fluid system can enable efficient production, fewer shut-downs, less maintenance time and lower costs. In order to maintain a sound heat-transfer system, it is critical that the fluid is well cared for and, when the fluid reaches the end of its life, that it is efficiently...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Five-Steps-to-Replacing-Aged-Heat-Transfer-Fluid_10299.html
March 1, 2013
Piping leakage due to corrosion has the potential to cause catastrophic fires and damage to process equipment in petroleum refining and other chemical process industries (CPI) facilities. When such incidents occur, a large amount of damage and a long downtime results. Despite the risks, mistakes are often repeated in the way burner piping is designed and used. Using the failure-analysis investigation of a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Corrosion-in-Flexible-Burner-Hoses_10300.html
February 1, 2013
Pressure-relief valves are widely and effectively used in situations where the pressure in a process vessel rises to above the vessel’s design-pressure rating. Proper relief-valve sizing is critical to plant and process safety to permit fluids sufficient flow area to exit the vessel. Sizing relief valves requires several equations for different flows (liquid flow, vapor flow and two-phase flow), as...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Sizing-Calculations-for-Pressure-Relief-Valves_10173.html
February 1, 2013
Because natural gas supplies are significantly increasing due to the rising exploitation of shale gas, mainly in the U.S., propane prices are decreasing. Coupled with low propane prices, ethylene producers are shifting to lighter feedstocks (more ethane, less naphtha), which is decreasing yields of propylene in cracking operations. The increasing demand for propylene and the availability of low-cost...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Technology-Profile-Propylene-Production-via-Propane-Dehydrogenation_10175.html
February 1, 2013
Research and development (R&D) projects usually require significant time, effort and manpower to become successful. Despite the significant resources spent on R&D projects, only 5–10% of the projects are statistically believed to be successfully commercialized, in terms of both timing and technological advances. Many projects fail because they cannot achieve the desired results on timing of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Accelerating-Process-and-Product-Development_10177.html
February 1, 2013
Determining the proper preliminary size for centrifugal pumps during the initial stages of any pump-specification exercise requires numerous calculations and assumptions. This article reviews the steps needed to size centrifugal pumps during the early stages of a project, to support initial cost-estimation efforts. Such early pump-sizing efforts are important steps toward final pump selection and detailed...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Sizing-Specifying-and-Selecting-Centrifugal-Pumps_10179.html
February 1, 2013
 Figure 1. A handful of ceramic proppants is shown here Carbo Ceramics This article covers permitting and directly related design issues associated with thermal processes using drying and calcining for the production of both proppant sand and ceramic proppants (Figure 1) as an illustrative example (see sidebar, "What are proppants"). The permitting issues vary significantly with air-quality...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Permitting-Barriers-for-Dryers-and-Kilns_10180.html
January 1, 2013
Waste heat recovery (WHR) is essential for increasing energy efficiency in the chemical process industries (CPI). Presently, there are many WHR methods and technologies at various stages of implementation in petroleum refineries, petrochemical, chemical and other industry sectors. Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns provide strong motivation for implementing more and newer methods and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Waste-Heat-Recovery-Methods-And-Technologies_10084.html
January 1, 2013
An industrial compressed-air system is expected to supply air of defined quality, required pressure and desired quantity to all the plant air and instrument air consumers. With air being one of the most critical utilities of a chemical plant, a compressed air system should function efficiently and cost effectively. Therefore, designers should consider parameters such as air quality, air consumption and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Design-and-Specification-of-A-Compressed-Air-System_10085.html
January 1, 2013
Virtually every process-plant manager pursues the commendable goals of safely extending equipment life and maximizing both the availability and reliability of plant assets. Achieving these objectives usually requires upfront effort and money — both of which can be scarce resources. But even the realistic manager who knows that reliability comes at an ufront price may not want to authorize these...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Use-Simplified-Lifecycle-Cost-Computations-to-Justify-Upgrades_10087.html
December 1, 2012
Airborne respiratory hazards are a very real threat in the chemical process industries (CPI). Existing in a variety of forms including gases, vapors, dusts, mists, fumes, smoke, sprays and fog, such hazards can cause illnesses including cancer and lung impairment, or even death. Examples of respiratory hazards include combustion byproducts; toxic fumes or dust created by metal melting; ozone and nitrogen...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Clearing-the-Air-About-Respiratory-Protection_9985.html
December 1, 2012
Companies in the chemical process industries (CPI) spend billions of dollars every year on capital projects. Most are successful, yielding the desired results. Some projects are only partially successful (and therefore partial failures), in that they are ultimately completed and work as desired, but only after a budget or schedule overrun. And some projects fail completely, sometimes spectacularly, never...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Avoiding-Project-Failures_9988.html
December 1, 2012
Equipment for generating synthesis gas (syngas; mostly CO and H2) is typically the most expensive part of an overall gasification complex. Understandably, the owners of gasification assets seek the highest value for the syngas produced by these assets. The methodology used in this study describes which gasification products may yield the highest value for the resulting syngas, given certain input data and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Selection-of-an-Optimum-Gasification-Product_9990.html
December 1, 2012
When designing a batch system, engineers often select the control solution based on the size of the system. It is traditionally thought that small batch systems require a controller-based sequencing solution, while larger systems require a server-based solution. However, despite traditional practices, the size of the system is not always the best indicator of an appropriate solution. A small application or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Batch-Control-Controller-Versus-Server-Based-Sequencers_9991.html
December 1, 2012
Compared to petroleum refining, the coal gasification process appears less complex. The chemistry behind the primary gasification reactions have been well known for around 100 years, and coal is more plentiful than petroleum in the U.S. and in some other areas. So why then, are petroleum refineries common and coal gasification plants so rare? There are a host of reasons for why petroleum has historically...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Coal-Gasification-For-Chemicals_9992.html
December 1, 2012
When it comes to rotating machinery (pumps, compressors, gas turbines, steam turbines, turbo-expanders, and others) operating in the chemical process industries (CPI), installation, piping, support, pre-commissioning, commissioning and startup play crucial roles. Machinery maintenance and repair can be quite costly, and perhaps because of shortages of skilled manpower, particularly at remote site...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/CPI-Machinery-Commissioning-Startup-and-Piping_9994.html
November 1, 2012
Preventing dust explosions is not rocket science, and still these disasters occur. This article is written to help prevent these accidents. It describes how and why these explosions happen and what can be done to avoid them.   Why they occur Dust explosions occur when three conditions are present simultaneously. The first is that there is a dust cloud of a combustible material (the fuel). The second...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dust-Explosions-Prevention-and-Protection_9901.html
November 1, 2012
One of the most significant limitations on the operation of dynamic compressors (axial and centrifugal compressors) is the low-flow limit known as “surge”. A sudden valve closing, such as for emergency shutdowns or for a suction/discharge valve, presents significant challenges to anti-surge valve sizing and selection. Anti-surge valve requirements depend to a large degree on the compressor...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Anti-surge-Valves-for-Dynamic-Compressors_9903.html
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