Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 161 - 180 of 538 stories.
April 1, 2012
At one time, the design of distillation columns and other major components for the chemical process industries (CPI) required engineers to make one-at-a-time calculations in order to project what-if scenarios covering the processes, equipment, raw materials and capital necessary for renovation or construction. If an engineer was fortunate, he or she might have had access to central computer facilities that...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Better-Chemistry-By-Design_9181.html
April 1, 2012
Instrumentation best practices that are taught in colleges and published in standards are intended to be broadly applicable, guiding users in every industry and geography. However, for outdoor applications in cold climates, where the temperature can fall below –40°C, the optimum installation may be very different from those recommended via best practices, to ensure reasonable performance...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/New-Measurement-Practices-for-Cold-Climates_9182.html
April 1, 2012
In the chemical process industries (CPI) it is often necessary to verify material specification at various points in the process. In that effort, it is usually impossible — or at the very least impractical — to measure the whole production. Instead, small samples must be extracted from a parent population. Such is the case in particle size characterization of bulk solids, process streams and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Sampling-Particulate-Materials-the-Right-Way_9183.html
April 1, 2012
When a process plant is set up, an owner has several things in mind; the market demand for his product and hence the plant capacity, the plant cost, the space availability, space for future expansion and so on. Once a plant has been built, there is equipment that has additional design margins. For example, columns and pumps are specified with 10% margins. Control valves are specified with approximately a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Revamping-Your-Process-Plant_9184.html
March 1, 2012
Thermodynamics cannot yield any information about the intermediate states of a given reacting system. These intermediate states are the subject matter of chemical kinetics, which studies reaction rates and mechanisms. Chemical kinetics will predict what chemicals are present while thermodynamics will predict the limits of distribution of those chemicals in the different phases [1]. The design and analysis...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Thermodynamic-Analysis-Of-Electrolyte-Systems_9057.html
March 1, 2012
Distillation is one of the most extensively used operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). It is a highly energy-intensive unit operation, and continuously rising energy costs make it imperative to look for ways to reduce energy requirements. Some energy-saving configurations can increase capital investment costs, so the benefits need to be weighed carefully. Various techniques, such as heat...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-Optimization-By-Vapor-Recompression_9064.html
March 1, 2012
Rotating machines, such as pumps, compressors, gas turbines, steam turbines and electric motors, play crucial roles in most chemical process industries (CPI) facilities. Increasingly, advanced condition monitoring is being used to improve the operation and maintenance of these workhorse components. The use of well-designed condition-monitoring systems, predictive-maintenance strategies and failure...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Condition-Monitoring-for-Rotating-Machinery_9073.html
February 1, 2012
Level measurement and control in process vessels can be one of the most challenging applications in which to obtain consistently safe and reliable results. Part of this difficulty may be due to the fact that the sizing of the vessel and selection and installation of the level instruments are frequently performed by different people at different times, rather than evaluated holistically as a system. Level...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Vessel-Sizing-and-Level-Instrumentation_8947.html
February 1, 2012
Various misconceptions arise when it comes to the thermal design of cooling towers. Sometimes related parameters, such as range, approach, effectiveness, liquid-to-gas ratio ( L/G), wet-bulb temperature, cooling water temperature, relative humidity, number of transfer units (NTU) and other terms create a confusion for the designer in effectively sizing, selecting and evaluating a particular cooling tower...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Effective-Thermal-Design-Of-Cooling-Towers_8949.html
February 1, 2012
  Screw compressors are widely used throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and represent a substantial percentage of all positive-displacement compressors that are now sold and in operation in CPI facilities. In general, screw compressors are efficient, reliable, simple and compact compressors that are competitive from both an initial cost and an operating cost standpoint compared to other...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Choosing-Oil-injected-Screw-Compressors_8954.html
February 1, 2012
The pursuit of manufacturing excellence is a strong theme across all of the chemical process industries (CPI). Improving operations by eliminating variability and waste, a cornerstone of the six sigma approach, is essential for competitive performance in the global marketplace. In addition, of course, health, safety and the environment (HSE) remains the subject of intense scrutiny and concern. Within this...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Control-Strategies-Based-On-Realtime-Particle-Size-Analysis_8955.html
January 1, 2012
Mechanical integrity is an essential consideration in heat exchanger design. The most common threat to this integrity is tube bundle vibration. So, the computer programs used for heat exchanger design incorporate procedures that assess this threat. However, such analysis is generally undertaken after exchanger geometry has been identified. The result can be that geometry that is optimal in terms of thermal...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-Shell-and-Tube-Heat-Exchangers-Avoid-Vibration-From-The-Start_8834.html
January 1, 2012
Projects have been undertaken by nations, private enterprises and individuals for more years than recorded history. Over the last three decades, project execution in the chemical process industries (CPI) has become almost standardized, with the general adoption of certain well-known project management procedures including the Front-end Loading (FEL) process and the “Body of Knowledge.” Those...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Ten-Tips-For-Smart-Project-Managers_8835.html
January 1, 2012
In the chemical process industries (CPI) it is relatively common to use a homogeneous two-phase flow model to predict the pressure drop through the shell-side of horizontal heat exchangers that handle two-phase mixtures. Recent experimental studies reported by HTFS [1, 2], however, have shown that this approach leads to overprediction of pressure drop and to overprediction of thermal performance. As a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-Shell-and-Tube-Heat-Exchangers-Consider-Two-Phase-Flow_8839.html
January 1, 2012
      Lubricants in rotating machines reduce friction and wear, dissipate heat, protect surfaces, keep out foreign contaminants and remove wear particles. Commonly used liquid lubricants fall into two main categories: mineral (petroleum-based) oils and synthetic oils. Mineral oils are produced by refining crude petroleum. They usually contain trace amounts of some unwanted substances. By...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Lubricating-Rotating-Machinery_8840.html
December 1, 2011
Articles about thermal fluid systems often start with a variation of the statement that “thermal fluid systems typically require little ongoing maintenance for the first few years of operation” and then go on to extol the various advantages of indirect thermal-fluid process heating over competitive heating methods, such as direct heat, steam and so on. The corollary to that statement, however...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Troubleshooting-Heat-Transfer-Fluid-Systems_8729.html
December 1, 2011
The interior surfaces of your storage tanks are constantly at risk. You undoubtedly walk past a tank and do not give thought to what is happening on the inside, but that is because you trust the interior coating to protect not only the storage vessel, but also the product being stored from corrosion that might occur on the tank. Without a doubt, corrosion is the principal enemy of a storage vessel. It...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Preventing-Tank-Corrosion_8756.html
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