Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 21 - 40 of 527 stories.
June 1, 2014
Compressors for specialized chemical process industries (CPI) applications — particularly high-pressure applications (involving large- and medium-sized machines) and those calling for small compressor units — present particular challenges to system designers and operators. This article discusses a variety of engineering recommendations that should be considered to address these challenges. This...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Compressors-for-Specialized-Applications_11836.html
May 1, 2014
Increasing global demand for energy and a drive to develop renewable energy sources have focused research and development attention on biomass (including wood, agricultural residues and municipal wastes) as a source of energy and products. Biomass can be converted into bioenergy via biochemical and thermochemical means. In biochemical routes, the biomass is converted into liquid or gaseous fuels by...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-the-Direct-Gasification-of-Biomass_11730.html
May 1, 2014
Plate-and-frame heat exchangers, or plate heat exchangers (PHEs), are a type of compact heat exchanger. PHEs have been widely used in the food industries, mainly because they easily meet health and sanitation requirements due to their simple disassembly for cleaning. They have recently become more common in the chemical process industries (CPI) for certain applications and operational conditions...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Unlocking-the-Secrets-of-Plate-and-Frame-Heat-Exchangers_11732.html
May 1, 2014
Leaks in a chemical process industries (CPI) facility can run the gamut from creating a costly waste to prefacing a catastrophic failure.. They can be an annoyance, by creating pools of liquid on concrete that can become a possible slipping hazard and housekeeping problem, or a leak that can emit toxic vapors, causing various degrees of harm to personnel. In some cases a leak may be a simple housekeeping...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-System-Leak-Detection-and-Monitoring-for-the-CPI_11733.html
May 1, 2014
Large petroleum-refining complexes often have dozens of fired heaters, making broad-based competency in this area essential to overall reliability, safety and energy efficiency. Despite industry’s widespread familiarity with fired heaters, they continue to pose significant challenges during initial control-system design and unless properly specified, operated and maintained, fired heaters can hinder...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Fired-Heaters-Best-Practices-for-the-Control-of-Fuel-Gas_11734.html
May 1, 2014
Existing chemical process industries (CPI) facilities possess years, if not decades, of legacy engineering information. The data exist in a myriad of formats and are typically siloed across multiple systems and locations. In cases where the engineering data are either lost or damaged, undocumented, or limited to the institutional knowledge of the local operations team, control documents related to piping...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Three-Insights-for-Managing-Legacy-Data_11738.html
April 1, 2014
The piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is often considered to be the gold standard for the proper design, operation and maintenance of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI), including chemical, oil-and-gas facilities, mining operations, food-processing plants, and water- and wastewater-treatment plants. The P&ID provides important information for manufacturing and installing...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Principles-of-P-and-ID-Development_11592.html
April 1, 2014
Succinic acid is an important industrial chemical that is traditionally derived from petroleum feedstocks. It can be used in several areas — from high-value niche applications, such as food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, to large-volume applications, such as plasticizers, resins and coatings. However, the current market for succinic acid is limited to specialized areas because of its costly...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Production-of-Bio-based-Succinic-Acid_11611.html
April 1, 2014
In an integrally geared centrifugal compressor (Figure 1), several impellers are mounted on the ends of high-speed pinion shafts, which are rotated by a bull-gear. Each impeller’s casing is mounted directly on the horizontally split gear casing. As is the case for any turbomachinery type used in the chemical processing industries (CPI), there are advantages and disadvantages associated with the use...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Integrally-Geared-Compressors-in-the-CPI_11626.html
April 1, 2014
Pressure variations resulting from the oscillatory flow patterns found in positive-displacement machinery, especially reciprocating compressors, are referred to as “pulsations.” Found in both liquid- and gas-handling systems, pulsations are a common phenomenon in the chemical processing industries (CPI). Operational problems associated with pulsations include resonance conditions, high...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Protecting-Against-Compressor-Pulsations_11629.html
March 1, 2014
How big can a fermenter get? And what would the biggest fermenter look like? The answers to these questions depend upon how the requirements of heat transfer, mass transfer (gas-to-liquid), and momentum transfer (mixing) are met. In an earlier article (Heat Transfer for Huge-Scale Fermentation, Chem. Eng., November 2013, pp. 44–46) the authors described how heat-transfer requirements can cause...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Mass-Transfer-in-Fermentation-Scaleup_11536.html
March 1, 2014
Dilute-phase pneumatic conveying systems must be operated in a certain sequence and have sufficient instrumentation and operating controls to assure reliable operation and prevent problems. This article discusses two subjects that are important for successful dilute-phase conveying. Discussed below are design guidelines for instrumentation and controls that can prevent operating problems, such as pipeline...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dilute-phase-Pneumatic-Conveying-Instrumentation-and-Conveying-Velocity_11537.html
March 1, 2014
As an owner or manager of a company whose product is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), you will, at some point, be subjected to an FDA inspection. And once an inspection is underway in your facility, anything affecting the drug or food product directly or indirectly in an adverse manner is within the purview of the FDA inspectors. If discrepancies are found during such an...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/FDA-Form-483-Minimizing-FDA-Inspection-Citations_11538.html
March 1, 2014
Ethylene and propylene are the most important intermediates in the petrochemical industry. Globally, they are produced mainly by steam cracking of hydrocarbons, such as naphtha, propane and ethane. The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process is an alternative approach to producing these light olefins from methanol feedstock, which can be derived from other raw materials, including natural gas, coal or biomass...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Methanol-to-Olefins-Process_11539.html
March 1, 2014
The chemical process industries (CPI) are, by their very nature, global in scope. While chemical process operators share many common aspects (in terms of the use of chemical engineering unit operations), the location of their operation brings about different requirements when it comes to managing gaseous and particulate pollutants, because different countries have different regulations with regard to air...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Global-Air-Pollution-Regulations-Variation-is-the-Norm_11540.html
March 1, 2014
Corrosion to the external surface of process piping and vessels that is hidden under the insulation is referred to as corrosion under insulation (CUI). Aging piping and equipment in chemical plants and petroleum refineries have made CUI detection and assessment requirements increasingly important. Because the need to detect and assess CUI is critical in chemical process industries (CPI) facilities...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Implementing-a-Corrosion-Under-Insulation-Program_11548.html
February 1, 2014
Since 1956, polypropylene has been commercially produced using catalysts and technology that were developed from independent research by Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta. Their namesake catalysts have enabled the widespread use of this polymer in the decades since. Polypropylene has become a major part of the modern plastics-resin market because of its unique physical properties, and is now employed in a wide...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Production-via-Gas-Phase-Process-Stirred-bed-reactor_11436.html
February 1, 2014
Compressible gas flow with significant variation in density along pipes is commonplace in the chemical processing industries (CPI). In designing these pipes for compressible flow, it is important to calculate the pressure loss or maximum gas-handling capacity for safety and economic reasons. Due to the complexity of the equations for compressible flow, which often require time-consuming iterations, current...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Compressible-Fluid-Flow-Calculation-Methods_11438.html
February 1, 2014
Would you like to make a quick mental calculation to determine approximate flowrate, velocity, or pipe and duct sizes for many common situations? This article presents two methods for estimating flow characteristics without the aid of charts, tables, calculators or software programs. One method applies to liquid flow in pipes, and the other to air flow in ducts. The techniques are intended to be simple...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Quick-Pipe-and-Duct-Flow-Calculations_11439.html
February 1, 2014
Thermal dispersion (TD) mass flowmeters measure the mass flowrate of fluids (primarily gases) flowing through a closed conduit, such as a pipe. This article describes the operation and installation of TD mass flowmeters, and gives the reader information about what applications these meters are most suited for.     Background The first general description of TD mass flowmeters is attributed to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Advanced-Thermal-Dispersion-Mass-Flowmeters_11443.html
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