Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 201 - 220 of 533 stories.
July 1, 2011
To make the modern materials we use every day, such as plastics, metals, electronics, pharmaceuticals, fuels and so on, strong acids are used to convert the earth’s raw materials into modern materials. In fact, so many tons of acid are used (200 million metric tones of sulfuric acid annually worldwide) that the gross domestic product (GDP) of most industrial nations are directly correlated to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Heat-Exchangers-for-Hot-Acids-Material-Selection_8160.html
July 1, 2011
Crystallization is a key purification technique for various sectors of the chemical process industries (CPI). Several approaches for industrial crystallization have evolved over time, and highly specialized crystallizer designs have been developed, especially in long-established industries. Solution crystallization is an important unit operation because the process can generate high-purity products from...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-Clearer-View-Of-Crystallizers_8168.html
July 1, 2011
Engineers working in the chemical process industries (CPI) sometimes have to deal with aerosol contamination issues in which liquid-gas coalescers are routinely employed. For example, liquid-gas coalescers are used to protect compressors, liquid-gas contactors, turbines, low-NOx burners, metering and instrumentation stations, and for many other applications. Choosing the right coalescer type can be a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Liquid-Gas-Coalescers-Demystifying-Performance-Ratings_8182.html
July 1, 2011
In the emerging and ever-expanding areas of bioprocessing, where maintaining hygienic designs and practices is of paramount importance, and semiconductor manufacturing, which has its own stringent purity requirements, there is a need to standardize the essential codes and standards that are available. The goal is to consistently achieve process systems that meet the highly refined cleanliness and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/New-Piping-Code-for-High-Purity-Processes_8190.html
July 1, 2011
Distillation columns are often workhorses in the chemical process industries (CPI), and at times, it is necessary to physically inspect the interior of a column. This article demonstrates what an inspection can reveal, by sharing the experience of actual fractionation-tower inspections in a petroleum refinery. The points mentioned are intended to provide guidance to future tower inspectors, so that they...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Inspecting-Fractionation-Towers_8214.html
June 1, 2011
The topic of fouling in heat exchangers has been of increasing interest in recent years, since it is so closely linked to the cost of building and running a chemical plant. It has been reported that fouling costs are about 0.25% of the gross national product (GNP) of highly industrialized countries, which, based on current estimates of GNP for the U.S. of $15 trillion, makes the staggering cost of fouling...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Compact-High-efficiency-Heat-Exchangers-Understanding-Fouling_8087.html
June 1, 2011
One of the most important measurements in the chemical process industries (CPI) is rate of flow. Flowrates can be important to measure, and in fact can be critical to measure, throughout a process — from dosing components into a reactor to material transfers in-between process steps, to discharging products at the end. Flow metering technologies fall into four classifications: velocity, inferential...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Measuring-Flow_8089.html
June 1, 2011
There was a time, not long ago, when most groups responsible for industrial control systems (ICS) in the chemical process industries (CPI) were not much worried about security. They had their firewalls in place and their remote access servers, and overall that worked for them. Rarely, a virus would sneak in and usually do little damage. The affected computers would need to be shut down and cleaned out, but...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cybersecurity-for-Chemical-Engineers_8095.html
June 1, 2011
Very seldom is a product of desired size manufactured directly in a process. Size reduction, coupled with screening (classification), is commonly used to achieve desired particle size. In many instances, the final application dictates requirement of small particle size to enhance performance. For example, fine particles enhance dispersion of pharmaceutical ingredients, increase surface coverage of paints...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Maximizing-Performance-In-Size-Reduction_8106.html
June 1, 2011
A common practice in the chemical process industries (CPI) is to implement so-called value- maximization projects (VMP) to increase production or reduce production costs in order to increase profit margins. With such projects, one main objective of the design team is to incur minimum capital expenditures. Because most VMPs aim to increase throughput or production yield, many such projects involve changes...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Reduce-Gas-Entrainment-In-Liquid-Lines_8110.html
May 1, 2011
Pressure measurement in the chemical process industries (CPI) is crucial to many unit operations, and selecting the most effective pressure sensors for a given situation can be complicated by a range of factors. An initial key to selection is establishing an accurate understanding of exactly what is meant when the term “pressure” is used, since there are different types. Other critical...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pressure-measurement-considerations_7940.html
May 1, 2011
Raise your hand if you ever regretted going with the low cost bidder. Keep your hand raised if the low cost bidder ever yielded you the highest cost result. If your officemate is staring at you quizzically, pretend to be working out the shoulder kink that originated two evenings ago when you played racket ball with the vice president of human resources at the gym. Distillation columns at Fractionation...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Low-cost-bidding_7941.html
May 1, 2011
Combustion provides heat for many industrial processes and accounts for over 80% of the power used by turbines to generate electricity. Over the past several decades, regulatory action and concerns over environmental air pollutants, such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), have pushed industrial process designers to develop burners that lower pollutant emissions and prompted manufacturers to switch to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Burner-Design-for-Fuel-Flexibility-and-Efficiency_7978.html
May 1, 2011
Many operations involving ideal gases are readily calculated using a basic knowledge of thermodynamics. Non-ideal gas behavior, however, can deviate significantly from that of ideal gases, and in some cases, large errors can be introduced in process calculations if a gas is improperly assumed to behave ideally. The pressure, volume and temperature ( PVT) relationship of a gas defines its behavior and is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Non-ideal-Gas-Calculations-Using-Analytical-Residuals_7981.html
May 1, 2011
Wastewater streams from petroleum refineries present some of the largest ranges of variation in contaminant loadings and contain some of the toughest contaminant profiles to treat. These factors render the wastewater treatment processes difficult to control. The most challenging area of wastewater process control in petroleum refining lies in biological treatment, due to the vast number of control...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Optimizing-Biological-Water-Treatment-in-Petroleum-Refining_7986.html
May 1, 2011
Gas turbines are widely used throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) — especially in petroleum refineries and petrochemical facilities — to provide both mechanical-drive and power-generation capabilities. Presented below are a variety of recommendations related to the selection and arrangement of gas turbines and auxiliaries, performance testing, and proper operation and maintenance of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Gas-Turbines_7988.html
May 1, 2011
Due to their simplicity of construction, lack of moving parts, ability to operate at a wide range of temperatures and pressures, low capital and operating cost, cyclones have been the workhorse for gas-solid separation in a wide variety of industries. If properly designed and installed, cyclones can be used to control particulate emissions as low as 5 microns in size, and sometimes to smaller sizes in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Harnessing-the-Power-of-a-Cyclone_7990.html
April 27, 2011
Originally published in the April 1, 1985 issue, this 21 page article contains timeless recommendations for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Eliminating-Potential-Process-Hazards_7925.html
April 26, 2011
[Originally published in the May 1995 issue of Chemical Engineering] Cyclone dust collectors have been used - and misused - all over the world for more than 100 years. One reason for the misuse is a common perception among users that all cyclones are ``created equal'' - that is, as long as a cyclone resembles a cylinder with an attached cone, it will do its job. However, to maximize separation efficiency...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Tips-for-Selecting-Highly-Efficient-Cyclones_7924.html
April 15, 2011
All good things come to an end. And so it is with Microsoft extended support and security updates for Windows 2000,which ended in July 2010. Any manufacturer with industrial applications that are based on Windows 2000 may wisely be considering a newer operating system, in order to remain in production with the necessary security support. But migrating to a new operating system can be time-consuming...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Time-for-action-Support-has-ended-for-Windows-2000-in-industrial-automation_7886.html
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