Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 221 - 240 of 533 stories.
April 1, 2011
It was the Dr. James R. Fair Heritage Distillation Symposium at the Chicago AIChE meeting last month. I had decided to finally give a presentation about something that has been bugging me since October 28, 1974, my first day as a practicing chemical engineer. “Regarding distillation trays, I do not believe in entrainment. I believe that I am at least 50% correct.” I had the audience’s...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/I-do-not-believe-in-entrainment_7730.html
April 1, 2011
Regulatory authorities around the world require continuous emissions monitoring of certain pollutants from large combustion sources. There are two main technologies for monitoring these emissions on a continuous basis — the more traditional one relies on sampling and analyzing exhaust gases from a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS); and the newer one relies on software that uses...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/PEMS-The-Low-Cost-Alternative-To-Emissions-Monitoring_7741.html
April 1, 2011
The ever important aim of energy efficiency in the chemical process industries (CPI) is brought closer to its target by the practice of energy recovery in heat exchanger networks (HENs). When heat exchangers are designed to work together to exchange heat between hot and cold streams, the required utilities are effectively reduced. The HEN designer usually applies the assumptions of fixed operating...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Flexible-Heat-Exchanger-Networks_7747.html
April 1, 2011
Manufacturers of specialty chemicals are routinely required to reduce costs and increase the production of their high-value products. Specifically, competitive pressures from the developing world, increases in raw material costs and volatility in energy costs are putting significant pressure on manufacturers to minimize processing costs and maximize product yields. The economic impact of optimization...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-Back-Mixing-Impact-on-Batch-Yields_7781.html
April 1, 2011
Many individuals and organizations have made important contributions to the creation of inherently safer (IS) products, processes and process plants [1–3]. A brief survey of successful case histories shows that most reported applications relied on only a few of the core IS principles. This paper emphasizes the opportunities presented by three particular — and often-overlooked —...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-Safer-Process-Plants_7782.html
April 1, 2011
A variety of factors — including a shift in the median age of workers worldwide and the impending skills shortage due to attrition and early retirements — have created a need to find fast and reliable methods and tools for mapping the technical competencies of professionals in the chemical process industries (CPI). Typically competency-mapping projects in the CPI begin with some form of task or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Refinery-Operators-and-Maintenance-Technicians-Mapping-Competencies_7802.html
March 23, 2011
Water-supply issues are emerging as a national concern with certain sectors coming under increasing scrutiny. This is certainly the case with the ethanol industry. State discharge regulations dictate that plant designs incorporate technological solutions to minimize water use. These designs give operators increased flexibility in terms of enabling the reuse of water streams internally, with the goal to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Achieving-Zero-Liquid-Discharge-Status_6494.html
March 1, 2011
Considering that Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) has been performing distillation research since 1954, don’t we have all the answers yet? Not according to the membership. The vendors of trays and packings have had very aggressive R&D programs. New and interesting products have appeared annually. In addition to the testing of such products in hydrocarbon service and at commercial diameters, the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/FRIs-parallel-projects_6434.html
March 1, 2011
Chemical protective garments are available in a wide variety of fabrics and designs that provide varying levels of protection for chemical process industries (CPI) workers, who may be exposed to chemicals in the form of vapors, liquids and particles. While other forms of personal protective equipment — such as safety glasses and hard hats — are highly regulated in the U.S. and Canada, the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Chemical-Protective-Clothing_6444.html
March 1, 2011
Agility, reliability, reporting and sharing of business information are among the key ingredients that have been dictated to modern-day control systems by the competitive pressures facing today’s manufacturers. In short, production must be faster, more efficient and provide actionable data for operators. And the last thing anybody in this situation needs is a server failure. Where does that leave the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solving-Common-Batch-Problems-Controller-Based-Systems_6446.html
March 1, 2011
For any capital-intensive and labor-intensive engineering and construction (E&C) project, the lead process engineer (LPE) plays a pivotal role. To maximize the success of these complex projects, companies that hire E&C companies should be aware of the role that the E&C process engineering team plays in terms of helping to execute these projects. In a nutshell, the LPE is responsible for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/E-and-C-projects-Clarifying-the-Role-of-the-Lead-Process-Engineer_6455.html
February 1, 2011
The pressure testing of process piping and vessels is essential in the chemical process industries (CPI). In liquefied natural gas (LNG) and other cryogenic facilities, residual water left by hydraulic pressure testing could result in operational problems if not completely removed, and complete removal of residual water can be very difficult and time consuming. Pneumatic pressure testing avoids these...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Evaluating-and-Reducing-the-Risks-Of-Pneumatic-Pressure-Testing_6363.html
February 1, 2011
The fact that I was 150 ft up, on the outside of an extraction column, in January, in Canada, in a 20-mph wind, was not the worst part of the experience. The worst part was that the column was not working properly, and I had helped to design it. Like most industrial columns, this one had vertical ladders on its side. Each ladder led to a landing, or so-called deck. Each ladder was surrounded by a cage. The...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Crows-nest_6366.html
February 1, 2011
Steam thermodynamics Brad Buecker’s article, Steam Generation Thermodynamics (November 2010, pp. 44–47), was excellent — good information without getting bogged down with too much theory and formulae. I never had formal education in thermodynamics so some of the examples he stated were over my head. Still his explanations enabled me to refresh my knowledge at a level that I could...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/February-2011-Letters_6367.html
February 1, 2011
Piping integrity is always a major concern in the chemical process industries (CPI), but the level of concern elevates when piping is buried underground. Soil conditions not only exacerbate general external corrosion, but also increase the difficulty and cost of inspection — a necessary step for ensuring safe and reliable operation. Making matters worse, many underground piping systems are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Inspecting-Underground-Piping_6373.html
February 1, 2011
Buried piping — especially lines carrying hydrocarbons — shoulders many more risks in terms of plant safety and environmental protection than aboveground piping does. Leaks in buried pipes are much harder to detect and, yet, are no less catastrophic. Ironically, underground piping design does not get as much emphasis in the chemical process industries (CPI) as aboveground piping does. Whether...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Design-Underground-Piping-For-Safety_6375.html
February 1, 2011
Throughout the chemical process industries (CPI), project owners often track key performance indicators (KPIs) to ensure that all participants are able to attain or improve important performance objectives associated with their investments. For instance, for complex projects involving various contractors and sub-contractors, the predetermined expectations spelled out in the agreed-upon set of KPIs allow...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Owners-and-contractors-Key-Metrics-Improve-Performance_6376.html
January 1, 2011
Some columns sway with the wind; some columns sway with the waves. In fact, hundreds of columns now reside offshore, on platforms and on barges. Most dry and sweeten gases. Some distill. The trays and packing distributors of such columns are regularly, appreciably out of level. Sloshing occurs. The packings are regularly, appreciably off vertical. Some of what we know about the design of such columns...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Earthquake-fractionation_6282.html
January 1, 2011
Although plant safety should be a top priority every day, there are certain times when extra vigilance is needed to make sure that safety practices are being maintained. This article outlines three periods deemed to be “critical” for plant safety and specific items to pay attention to in these periods.     Three critical periods The following three phases in a production plant’s...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Effective-Plant-Safety-Management_6289.html
January 1, 2011
History is a constant reminder that accidents and catastrophic events can and do occur in process environments. As processes become more complex (for instance, allowing for greater operating temperatures and pressures to be used) and existing basic process control systems (BPCS) and safety systems age, risk reduction becomes more challenging. Regulations from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Admin...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Safety-Instrumented-Systems-Control-Valves-As-Final-Elements_6290.html
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