Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 261 - 280 of 533 stories.
September 1, 2010
Polymeric piping systems have been used in well-defined segments of the chemical process industries (CPI) for decades. They have proven their sustainability to manage almost any chemical load up to temperatures of 100°C in the moderate pressure region ( p < 10 bar) if the choice of the respective piping-system material has been made correctly. However, their potential of exceptional performance is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Polymer-Based-Piping-Systems-in-the-CPI_5966.html
September 1, 2010
If the debate that culminated in passage of national healthcare reform in the U.S. is any indication of what is ahead for pharmaceutical manufacturers, they should ready themselves for battle. Implementation of the sweeping measure puts the onus on drugmakers to minimize waste and boost production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished products, ensuring affordable healthcare for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Counting-On-Process-Analytical-Technology_5968.html
September 1, 2010
Temperature is a critical measurement in the chemical process industries (CPI). If a measurement is not accurate or reliable, or the sensor is incorrectly chosen, it can cost a company thousands of dollars in wasted steam, extra feedstock or rejected product. Sometimes even a few degrees of error in a temperature measurement can be very expensive. Therefore, it pays to ensure that temperature measurements...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Applying-CPI-Temperature-Sensors_5969.html
August 1, 2010
My first distillation dream occurred about 30 years ago, and yet, I recall it as vividly as if it were yesterday. In it, my distillation-column design work started with a vapor-liquid thermodynamic model that was widely regarded as perfect. I had operating data from ten similar columns. The feed composition was precisely known, and there were no alternative feedstocks. The overhead specification was easy...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Successful-revamps_5889.html
August 1, 2010
The mechanical design and material science of pH-sensor technology have evolved dramatically over the last century. Current-day uses include a wide range of applications from high-purity pharmaceutical processing to wastewater treatment. Some of these applications pose high challenges to pH measurement, including high-temperature and otherwise harsh measuring environments, stability (particularly in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/pH-Measurement-And-Control_5894.html
August 1, 2010
When it comes to managing regulatory documents such as product labels, bills of lading, and certificates of analysis (COA), virtually all manufacturers in the chemical process industries (CPI) face the same challenge — getting the right information into the right document formats for every shipment. This challenge becomes more complicated when you ship to customers with unique labeling and reporting...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Foolproofing-Regulatory-Document-Generation_5895.html
August 1, 2010
To unearth the fundamental causes of vibration-related pump troubles, pump end-users and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) typically have relied on a concise array of vibration field-test parameters. Conventional trial-and-error vibration troubleshooting methods often fail to achieve the longterm, trouble-free pump operation sought, yet they can be time-consuming and increasingly costly to apply...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Fine-tuning-Pump-Vibration-Diagnostics_5899.html
July 1, 2010
In 1952, 37 companies established Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI). Most of those original members are now gone or absorbed by other companies. Nevertheless, their goal was to study distillation in columns having diameters and heights that were similar to industrial columns. The columns of the world were getting larger and more numerous and were too often being designed using bench-top apparatuses and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Seeking-out-difficult-situations_5800.html
July 1, 2010
Pinch analysis emerged as a systematic design tool during the energy crisis of the late 1970s, particularly for the optimization of heat-exchanger networks and other heat-recovery systems [ 1 ]. Since then, ongoing breakthroughs in the use of pinch analysis have helped to establish mass- and property-integration techniques to assist with waste-minimization efforts [ 2, 3 ]. More recently, pinch analysis...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Optimize-Shift-Scheduling-Using-Pinch-Analysis_5806.html
July 1, 2010
Acoustic coupling in industrial furnaces is an issue that appears to have become more prevalent as designs increase the volumetric heat density of furnaces, and burner technology is required to meet more-stringent emission requirements. The problems associated with acoustic coupling appear in the form of either large oscillations in the heater pressure or tonal and high-level emitted noise. Although the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Controlling-Acoustic-Coupling_5807.html
July 1, 2010
Relief systems are the last line of defense for chemical process facilities. Verifying their capability to safeguard equipment integrity becomes important as process plants age, increase their capacities to adjust to new market requirements, undergo revamps or face new environmental regulations. In the past, approximately 30% of the chemical process industries’ (CPI) losses could be attributed, at...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Aging-Relief-Systems-Are-they-Working-Properly_5808.html
July 1, 2010
Storage of bulk materials in hoppers, bins and silos is ubiquitous in the chemical process industries (CPI), and so are the challenges that go along with it. Flow stoppage (bridging or arching), variability in mixture composition (de-mixing or segregation), erratic flow, uncontrolled flow (flooding), discharge-rate limitations and structural failures are not uncommon. While the impact of vessel geometry is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Using-Inserts-to-Address-Solids-Flow-Problems_5810.html
June 29, 2010
This table supports the article Using Inserts to Address Solids Flow Problems, CE, July 2010, pp. 32–37. U. S. Patents       Patent # Date Title Inventors 1,731,675 Oct. 15, 1929 Sawdust Feeder McCoy, John C. 2,843,274 Jul. 15, 1958 Flow Control Baffle for Granular Material Williams, Gael M. 3,166,222 Jan. 19, 1965 Vibratory Bin Agitator Schrader, Preston H. 3,794,386 Feb. 26, 1974...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-cross-section-of-insert-patents_5857.html
June 1, 2010
Containing fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is a challenge to the chemical process industries (CPI). It has been estimated that these industries account for half of all fugitive emissions, and 60% of these emissions are the result of valve stem leaks. In addition to environmental benefits, effectively containing these emissions can yield...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Containing-Fugitive-Emissions_5718.html
June 1, 2010
I have 70 supervisors. It sometimes feels like I am pulled in 70 different directions — north, south, east, west, up, down and inside-out. But even after two years at this job, I can still hold my hand steady — if I put it in a vice. Nevertheless, I feel that I have the best job in the distillation world; I am technical director at Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI; Stillwater, Okla....
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Propelling-distillation-research_5720.html
June 1, 2010
Incorporating fire safety into plant design takes on two fundamental goals: to prevent the occurrence of fire and to protect the initially uninvolved piping and equipment long enough for operations personnel to perform their duties and for emergency responders to get the fire under control. While it is impractical to completely eliminate the potential risk of an accidental fire in a complex process-plant...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-for-Hazardous-Fluid-Service_5721.html
May 1, 2010
Neptune Chemical Pump This self-priming pump is available for water and wastewater processing The Series 7000 mechanically actuated, diaphragm metering pumps (photo) can handle viscosities in excess of 5,000 cP and can pump chemicals that tend to off-gas (such as sodium hypochlorite) without binding. All models provide suction lift to 20 ft. Maximum capacities range from 15 to 300 gal/h with adjustble...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Focus-on-Pumps_5633.html
May 1, 2010
Gooch Thermal Systems Spiral plate heat exchangers are ideal for cooling slurries and viscous fluids. The performance of these units is characterized by increased turbulent heat transfer, reduced fouling, greater ease of maintenance, and more compact size compared to many competing options. In a spiral plate heat exchanger, the hot fluid enters at the center of the unit and flows from the inside outward...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Spiral-Plate-Heat-Exchangers-Sizing-Units-for-Cooling-Non-Newtonian-Slurries_5634.html
May 1, 2010
Wireless communications have great potential in the chemical process industries (CPI) because they do away with complex and costly cable installations and enable completely new applications. And while a recent wave of successful demonstrations has begun to emerge in the CPI (for more, see CE, Nov. 2009, p. 17–23), a number of hurdles stand in the way of a completely wireless Utopia. In most cases...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Wireless-Communication-in-Hazardous-Areas_5639.html
May 1, 2010
A virtually endless number of process options are available for agglomerating powders in the chemical process industries (CPI). These processes can be divided into two main categories: agitation and compression. Agglomeration by agitation includes granulation processes, such as fluidized-bed, disc, drum and mixer granulators. Agglomeration by compression includes compaction processes, such as tabletting...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Agglomeration-Technology-Equipment-Selection_5641.html
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