Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 281 - 300 of 538 stories.
June 1, 2010
Incorporating fire safety into plant design takes on two fundamental goals: to prevent the occurrence of fire and to protect the initially uninvolved piping and equipment long enough for operations personnel to perform their duties and for emergency responders to get the fire under control. While it is impractical to completely eliminate the potential risk of an accidental fire in a complex process-plant...
May 1, 2010
Neptune Chemical Pump This self-priming pump is available for water and wastewater processing The Series 7000 mechanically actuated, diaphragm metering pumps (photo) can handle viscosities in excess of 5,000 cP and can pump chemicals that tend to off-gas (such as sodium hypochlorite) without binding. All models provide suction lift to 20 ft. Maximum capacities range from 15 to 300 gal/h with adjustble...
May 1, 2010
Gooch Thermal Systems Spiral plate heat exchangers are ideal for cooling slurries and viscous fluids. The performance of these units is characterized by increased turbulent heat transfer, reduced fouling, greater ease of maintenance, and more compact size compared to many competing options. In a spiral plate heat exchanger, the hot fluid enters at the center of the unit and flows from the inside outward...
May 1, 2010
Wireless communications have great potential in the chemical process industries (CPI) because they do away with complex and costly cable installations and enable completely new applications. And while a recent wave of successful demonstrations has begun to emerge in the CPI (for more, see CE, Nov. 2009, p. 17–23), a number of hurdles stand in the way of a completely wireless Utopia. In most cases...
May 1, 2010
A virtually endless number of process options are available for agglomerating powders in the chemical process industries (CPI). These processes can be divided into two main categories: agitation and compression. Agglomeration by agitation includes granulation processes, such as fluidized-bed, disc, drum and mixer granulators. Agglomeration by compression includes compaction processes, such as tabletting...
April 1, 2010
Non-chemical methods for conditioning water for use in cooling towers and boilers have been investigated, marketed and installed for over 100 years. In light of the recent incentives to “go green,” these methods offer engineers, operators and owners the option of replacing corrosive, toxic chemicals with physical or mechanical processes that claim to produce the same or superior results to...
April 1, 2010
The use of appropriate hazardous-area lighting in the chemical process industries (CPI) is a key factor when it comes to improving overall plant safety and worker productivity, and supporting the best maintenance practices. The potentially hazardous conditions associated with many industrial settings place high demands on the lighting fixtures, and it is essential that pathways, walkways and stairways in...
April 1, 2010
As heat exchangers age, their tube thickness decreases because of erosion, corrosion or a combination of both. Installing thin sleeves in tubes in which the tube walls have become so thin that failure is imminent is a maintenance technique useful for extending heat exchanger life. One should consider sleeving when: (1) it would be very costly to replace aged exchangers because of the installation position...
April 1, 2010
The stirred tank reactor with rotating mixers remains the backbone of the chemical process industries (CPI). While mixing is considered a mature technology, it is clear that continued technological development is necessary to achieve the state-of-the-art design demanded by ever-increasing efficiency needs. As worldwide competition forces the CPI to increase the profitability of their production plants, it...
April 1, 2010
Particulate systems are everywhere; they are responsible for bright red sunsets, the texture of chocolate and the rate of drug delivery in the human body. Particulate processing and size control originated back in prehistoric times where mixtures of pigments were finely pulverized and used in the painting of cavern walls. From those primitive beginnings, the use and processing of particulate matter has...
March 1, 2010
Powder agglomeration is used in a wide variety of the chemical process industries (CPI), and a virtually endless number of process options are available. Selection requires engineers to make a substantial number of design decisions, such as the choice between wet or dry processing, the intensity of mixing and shear rates, continuous versus batch operation, cross contamination of products and ease of...
March 1, 2010
The delayed coking process is a fundamental part of the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, and is among the main technical means for transforming inexpensive heavy oil into more valuable, light-oil products. Delayed coking units are common in petroleum refineries, and the process has been developed significantly as a heavy oil processing method in many countries, including China and the U.S...
March 1, 2010
The solubility of water in the hydrocarbons that comprise crude oil is an increasingly important issue in view of processing, safety and environmental considerations surrounding product quality and equipment sustainability. Water in the reacting hydrocarbon species may result in the formation of undesirable by-products. The presence of water in the product may be detrimental to quality. Water content at...
March 1, 2010
Oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) is the most common process in the chemical process industries (CPI) for removing diluted emissions of VOCs and carbon monoxide from stationary air- pollution sources. Thousands of RTOs operate in automobile, engineered wood, chemical and other industries. RTOs combine gas-phase thermal oxidation of VOCs with...
March 1, 2010
With today’s state-of-the-art digital technology, the sky seems to be the limit for doing everything with one system platform. However, with the exception of a few very specific applications, using a safety PLC (programmable logic controller) for process control is not a good choice. Safety PLCs are designed and optimized to operate in a static environment, where action is only taken when a process...
February 1, 2010
This article describes an algorithm that end users can use to develop a program on a personal computer to assess the technical and economic feasibility of installing a variable frequency drive (VFD) on centrifugal pumps. This simple algorithm serves a variety of useful functions, helping engineers to carry out the following functions: Check the technical feasibility and evaluate whether or not it is...
February 1, 2010
A survey of tower failures [ 1 ] ranks kettle reboilers as the most troublesome reboiler type in the chemical process industries (CPI). Excessive pressure drop in kettle reboiler circuits is the prominent kettle malfunction, causing liquid to back up in the tower base beyond the reboiler return elevation. This high liquid level leads to premature flooding and capacity loss. In almost all the surveyed...
February 1, 2010
Today’s high costs of energy make an energy audit evaluation of process facilities a must. Most plants were designed and built when energy costs were low by today’s standards. This makes facilities that have not been reviewed for energy efficiency in the last few years ripe for large potential savings in energy costs, primarily from fuel and electric power. Typically, projects can be identified...
February 1, 2010
For valves operating in hazardous environments, certification testing is critical to ensure the reliability and safety of the equipment. But this testing process has historically required facilities to shut down and sacrifice valuable production hours to check each valve. Built-in self-test (BIST) capabilities in smart, electronic valve actuators were developed in response to these testing challenges. This...
January 1, 2010
Particulate buildup and other material flow problems are common hurdles wherever dry materials find application in the chemical process industries (CPI). Since manual intervention is costly in terms of downtime, and can be quite hazardous for the personnel involved, dedicated equipment is an attractive way to either prevent or remove flow blockages. Equipment options include vibrators and air cannons and a...
Pages: « Previous  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 [15] 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Next »

Get more from
Get email updates in your inbox


Subscribe to:
Chemical Engineering Magazine

Chemical Engineering Magazine and Archives

Plant Cost Index

Join us on... Twitter LinkedIn

LinkedIn Groups

Our LinkedIn group is now over 33,000 members strong!

  1. Join other CPI professionals from all over the globe and share best practices, expertise, concerns and more.
  2. Provide feedback to Chemical Engineering Editors

Current members represent Worley Parsons, DuPont, SABIC, Fluor, Air Products, LyondellBasell, Nalco, Dow Chemical, Dow Corning, BASF, Jacobs Engineering, ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron and more.

Join Now

We also offer the following subgroup for more targeted discussions:

Search the Buyers' Guide

Plant Cost Index

Facts at Your Fingertips (archive)

Ask the Experts

Back Issues
To access this area, please log in or create an account.
Forgot your password?
Request it now.
Live chat by BoldChat