Archives :: Technical & Practical

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January 1, 2010
Pipe sizing calculations include certain values that are time dependent, such as costs. While some costs rise, others decrease over time. It is the designers task to ensure that the total cost is minimized. For fluid flow calculations, heuristic criteria are often used, which is the main reason why these values must be updated from time to time. In this article, recommended velocities are updated for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Updating-the-Rules-For-Pipe-Sizing_5402.html
January 1, 2010
The chemical process industries (CPI) invest large amounts of capital each year and spend even more to produce the goods they sell. In 2007, CPI companies large enough to be in the Fortune 500 list invested more than $100 billion of capital and spent more than $1.2 trillion making their products. Most of this money is committed by decisions made in the early stages of process development and plant design...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Capital-And-Production-Costs-Improving-the-Bottom-Line_5403.html
January 1, 2010
Typical wastewater-treatment plants (WWTP) — both industrial and municipal — consume large amounts of energy, which can represent 50% or more of the facility’s variable operating and maintenance costs. Most employ biological processes that rely on energy-intensive aeration systems whose energy consumption is approximately 0.5 kWh per m3 of effluent treated. This article discusses a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Wastewater-Treatment-Energy-Conservation-Opportunities_5404.html
January 1, 2010
Relief system design is an important engineering activity throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). The main purpose of this task is to design a system that protects process equipment and piping against all possible causes of overpressure. It should relieve the excess pressure safely so as to protect personnel working in the facility from accidents, prevent damage to equipment and adjoining...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pressure-Relief-Requirement-During-External-Pool-Fire-Contingency_5405.html
December 1, 2009
The desire to move from batch to continuous processes for the production of high-value organic molecules has become more widespread in recent years as evidenced by the increasing number of related studies published in the literature. The benefits of continuous flow include increased product yield, increased utility and energy utilization, improved safety and greater automation. A quest to improve the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Millichannel-Reactors-A-Practical-Middle-Ground-for-Production_5316.html
December 1, 2009
Faced with increased workloads and time and budget constraints that often restrict external training support, many chemical process operators are forced to get the most out of their heat transfer system with less help. This article offers recommendations for how to carry out proactive maintenance on heat-transfer fluids, to maximize their useful life and minimize problems associated with fluid degradation...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Maximizing-Heat-Transfer-Fluid-Longevity_5322.html
December 1, 2009
Most chemical engineers involved with operating large chemical process facilities have encountered the following challenge: Several large engineering contractors built the facility in multiple phases, using different computer-software models. Retrieving drawings or data in both digital and non-digital form in such a situation only adds complexity to operations, maintenance and revamp activities and often...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Smooth-Your-Retrieval-of-Plant-Design-Data_5326.html
November 1, 2009
This photo shows a spray dryer with a heat recuperator. The plant has an evaporative capacity of 1,825 kg/h Spray drying is one of the major industrial drying technologies. It is applied by many industries because of its ability to convert a liquid product into a dried powder in a lenient single step and because it allows you to control temperature and the particle formation process very accurately...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-Primer-on-Spray-Drying_5237.html
November 1, 2009
Piping represents a major cost for projects in the chemical process industries (CPI). Larger pipe diameters increase upfront capital costs for a project, but the lower pressure drops afforded by large pipes mean less power is required to move the fluid through the pipe. Optimizing pipe diameter becomes an exercise in balancing the capital cost savings realized by using smaller pipes with the power required...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/De-emphasize-Capital-Costs-For-Pipe-Size-Selection_5238.html
November 1, 2009
The success of industrial R&D activities has a direct impact on a company’s long-term commercial profitability. Today, a variety of market forces, including the drive for growth, the search for new ideas and innovative products, and the increasingly competitive pressures of the global economy, have made R&D activities more important than ever from a strategic perspective. Figure 1. Integrated...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Making-the-Leap-from-R-and-D-to-Manufacturing_5239.html
November 1, 2009
Direct-fired heaters find wide application throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and are common in petroleum refineries, where they are used to preheat petroleum or petroleum-derived feedstocks in advance of downstream process operations. Since excessive internal tube fouling occurs above certain temperatures, designers often try to keep temperatures down by over-specifying the heat transfer...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Direct-Fired-Heaters-Evaluate-Thermal-Performance-And-the-Effects-of-Fouling_5241.html
October 1, 2009
Household items, such as breakfast cereal, flour, corn starch and sugar are so common that many were left surprised after the 2008 combustible-dust explosion at a sugar refinery in Georgia. Heard in much of the early media coverage was the question “How could sugar explode?” Plant explosions are, thankfully, not routine occurrences. However, when they do occur, it is the unusual event —...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Preventing-Dust-Explosions_5138.html
October 1, 2009
Compressed gas cylinders are widely used in research, pilot plant, laboratory and small-scale manufacturing and processing operations as a way to provide a convenient, economical and safe source of high-pressure gases for various applications. These gases can be inert, flammable, toxic or oxidizing (or mixtures of any or all), and are typically supplied at pressures from 800 to 6,000 psig, with 2,250 psig...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Compressed-Gases-Managing-Cylinders-Safely_5158.html
October 1, 2009
Thermal mass flowmeters provide advantages over other options for metering the consumption of natural gas by individual combustion units throughout the facilityWith today’s increased emphasis on strategic energy management, many throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and elsewhere are attempting to obtain better information on the natural gas consumption in their facilities. While...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-EfficiencyTracking-Natural-Gas-With-Flowmeters_5160.html
October 1, 2009
Bag filters for industrial applications have been in existence longer and are considered by some to be easier and simpler to specify than cartridges for a filtration project. And although cartridge filtration is now one of the mostly widely used filtration technologies in the chemical process industries (CPI), it is not always the first choice. How does one decide which filtration method should be used...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Estimating-the-Total-Cost-of-Cartridge-and-Bag-Filtration_5161.html
September 1, 2009
There are many considerations when choosing piping materials for an industrial system. Historically, when options were more limited, the decision-making process was relatively straightforward. It was a matter of choosing what grade of metal to install. Today, there is a larger array of high-performance, non-metallic options to also consider. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is an example of a newer...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/CPVC-Piping-In-Chemical-Environments-Evaluating-the-Safety-Record_5023.html
September 1, 2009
More and more, the chemical process industries (CPI) are seeking out the benefits of flexible production and maximizing energy and material recovery. Process units are becoming tightly integrated, and the failure of one unit can seriously degrade overall productivity. Meanwhile, with the influx of larger and larger scale operations, even small changes in productivity can seriously affect profitability...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Multivariable-Predictive-ControlThe-Scope-is-Wider-Than-You-Think_5027.html
September 1, 2009
Plastics are most commonly produced and sold in pellet form due to the superior handling characteristics of pellets in downstream applications. From the moment the polymer is pelletized from its molten state, the pellets or granules undergo a series of handling steps as they move from the producer to the consumer. For instance, post-pelletization steps include: • Hydraulic conveying • Drying...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Measuring-Dust-and-Fines-In-Polymer-Pellets_5028.html
September 1, 2009
In more and more locations, the availability of fresh water resources is limited and water reuse is becoming increasingly important. For many industrial applications, the availability of water is essentially a “license to operate”. A large component of the water consumption in many chemical process industries (CPI) is high- and low-pressure boiler water. As such, reusing cooling water blowdown...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Strategies-for-Water-Reuse_5046.html
September 1, 2009
Multiple CSTRs (continuous stirred-tank reactors) are advantageous in situations where the reaction is slow; two immiscible liquids are present and require higher agitation rates; or viscous liquids are present that require high agitation rates. Unlike in plugflow reactors, agitation is easily available in CSTRs. In this article, batch and plugflow reactors are analyzed and compared to multiple CSTRs...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/CSTR-Design-for-Reversible-Reactions_5052.html
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