Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 301 - 320 of 533 stories.
December 1, 2009
Faced with increased workloads and time and budget constraints that often restrict external training support, many chemical process operators are forced to get the most out of their heat transfer system with less help. This article offers recommendations for how to carry out proactive maintenance on heat-transfer fluids, to maximize their useful life and minimize problems associated with fluid degradation...
December 1, 2009
Most chemical engineers involved with operating large chemical process facilities have encountered the following challenge: Several large engineering contractors built the facility in multiple phases, using different computer-software models. Retrieving drawings or data in both digital and non-digital form in such a situation only adds complexity to operations, maintenance and revamp activities and often...
November 1, 2009
This photo shows a spray dryer with a heat recuperator. The plant has an evaporative capacity of 1,825 kg/h Spray drying is one of the major industrial drying technologies. It is applied by many industries because of its ability to convert a liquid product into a dried powder in a lenient single step and because it allows you to control temperature and the particle formation process very accurately...
November 1, 2009
Piping represents a major cost for projects in the chemical process industries (CPI). Larger pipe diameters increase upfront capital costs for a project, but the lower pressure drops afforded by large pipes mean less power is required to move the fluid through the pipe. Optimizing pipe diameter becomes an exercise in balancing the capital cost savings realized by using smaller pipes with the power required...
November 1, 2009
The success of industrial R&D activities has a direct impact on a company’s long-term commercial profitability. Today, a variety of market forces, including the drive for growth, the search for new ideas and innovative products, and the increasingly competitive pressures of the global economy, have made R&D activities more important than ever from a strategic perspective. Figure 1. Integrated...
November 1, 2009
Direct-fired heaters find wide application throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and are common in petroleum refineries, where they are used to preheat petroleum or petroleum-derived feedstocks in advance of downstream process operations. Since excessive internal tube fouling occurs above certain temperatures, designers often try to keep temperatures down by over-specifying the heat transfer...
October 1, 2009
Household items, such as breakfast cereal, flour, corn starch and sugar are so common that many were left surprised after the 2008 combustible-dust explosion at a sugar refinery in Georgia. Heard in much of the early media coverage was the question “How could sugar explode?” Plant explosions are, thankfully, not routine occurrences. However, when they do occur, it is the unusual event —...
October 1, 2009
Compressed gas cylinders are widely used in research, pilot plant, laboratory and small-scale manufacturing and processing operations as a way to provide a convenient, economical and safe source of high-pressure gases for various applications. These gases can be inert, flammable, toxic or oxidizing (or mixtures of any or all), and are typically supplied at pressures from 800 to 6,000 psig, with 2,250 psig...
October 1, 2009
Thermal mass flowmeters provide advantages over other options for metering the consumption of natural gas by individual combustion units throughout the facilityWith today’s increased emphasis on strategic energy management, many throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and elsewhere are attempting to obtain better information on the natural gas consumption in their facilities. While...
October 1, 2009
Bag filters for industrial applications have been in existence longer and are considered by some to be easier and simpler to specify than cartridges for a filtration project. And although cartridge filtration is now one of the mostly widely used filtration technologies in the chemical process industries (CPI), it is not always the first choice. How does one decide which filtration method should be used...
September 1, 2009
There are many considerations when choosing piping materials for an industrial system. Historically, when options were more limited, the decision-making process was relatively straightforward. It was a matter of choosing what grade of metal to install. Today, there is a larger array of high-performance, non-metallic options to also consider. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is an example of a newer...
September 1, 2009
More and more, the chemical process industries (CPI) are seeking out the benefits of flexible production and maximizing energy and material recovery. Process units are becoming tightly integrated, and the failure of one unit can seriously degrade overall productivity. Meanwhile, with the influx of larger and larger scale operations, even small changes in productivity can seriously affect profitability...
September 1, 2009
Plastics are most commonly produced and sold in pellet form due to the superior handling characteristics of pellets in downstream applications. From the moment the polymer is pelletized from its molten state, the pellets or granules undergo a series of handling steps as they move from the producer to the consumer. For instance, post-pelletization steps include: • Hydraulic conveying • Drying...
September 1, 2009
In more and more locations, the availability of fresh water resources is limited and water reuse is becoming increasingly important. For many industrial applications, the availability of water is essentially a “license to operate”. A large component of the water consumption in many chemical process industries (CPI) is high- and low-pressure boiler water. As such, reusing cooling water blowdown...
September 1, 2009
Multiple CSTRs (continuous stirred-tank reactors) are advantageous in situations where the reaction is slow; two immiscible liquids are present and require higher agitation rates; or viscous liquids are present that require high agitation rates. Unlike in plugflow reactors, agitation is easily available in CSTRs. In this article, batch and plugflow reactors are analyzed and compared to multiple CSTRs...
August 1, 2009
Failure to register under REACH closes EU markets for thousands of chemical substances manufactured or marketed in the European Union, whether on their own, in preparations (formulations) or released from articles (finished products). A key policy objective of registration under REACH (EC Regulation 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) — to shift the...
August 1, 2009
Most engineers know what viscosity is, but may have trouble explaining it. To be brief, viscosity is resistance to flow. For handlers of all materials that flow, either while being processed or in an end-use, it is important to think about the materials’ flow characteristics. The bottom line is to come up with ways to measure viscosity so that you can quantify whether a material will flow the way it...
August 1, 2009
Many branches of the chemical process industries (CPI) make use of impact comminution to process solid matter, such as minerals, foodstuffs, pharmaceutical products, and above all, products for the chemicals industry. Impact comminution is also used for coarse crushing, but the focus of this article is fine grinding with end-product particle sizes below 500 µm. The technology of impact comminution...
August 1, 2009
Cooling water systems that rely on cooling towers are a critical component at chemical process industries (CPI) facilities. However, during operation, these open recirculating systems concentrate the contaminants in the makeup...
July 1, 2009
The heat transfer sufaces of coal-fired process heaters and boilers often undergo severe fouling. If left intact, such deposits, consisting of slag from mineral matter contained in the coal, can reduce heat-transfer-surface availability, reduce thermal efficiency and cause corrosion. If the deposits are adherent and cannot be removed by conventional steam soot-blowers, shutdown and more rigorous cleaning...
Pages: « Previous  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 [16] 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next »

Get more from
Get email updates in your inbox


Subscribe to:
Chemical Engineering Magazine

Chemical Engineering Magazine and Archives

Plant Cost Index

Join us on... Twitter LinkedIn

LinkedIn Groups

Our LinkedIn group is now over 30,000 members strong!

  1. Join other CPI professionals from all over the globe and share best practices, expertise, concerns and more.
  2. Provide feedback to Chemical Engineering Editors

Current members represent Worley Parsons, DuPont, SABIC, Fluor, Air Products, LyondellBasell, Nalco, Dow Chemical, Dow Corning, BASF, Jacobs Engineering, ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron and more.

Join Now

We also offer the following subgroup for more targeted discussions:

Search the Buyers' Guide

Plant Cost Index

Facts at Your Fingertips (archive)

Ask the Experts

Back Issues
To access this area, please log in or create an account.
Forgot your password?
Request it now.
Live chat by BoldChat