Archives :: Technical & Practical

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October 15, 2008
  The perfect valve to control your process has been selected. The valve will pass your maximum flow. Everything is great, right? In some cases digging a little deeper might help. The control valve usually should not be the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Part-1-Using-Installed-Gain-to-Improve-Valve-Selection_4239.html
October 15, 2008
The role of valves in a process is far from insignificant. These components enable engineers to control the vitals of a process: temperature, pressure, concentration, and flow. In some cases, the failure of a valve could be catastrophic and in other cases just a headache, but whatever your situation, your material selection will surely be one of the most important elements in determining the reliability of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Part-2-Valves-and-Specialty-Metal-Materials_4240.html
October 15, 2008
Spray technology is a powerful tool used to achieve higher levels of overall process performance. Strategic decisions in selecting and employing spray technology can yield dramatic wins. Understanding sprays, drop size, and the strengths and characteristics of nozzle types and correctly positioning them are fundamental to the desired process "response" or result. The selection of a nozzle is a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Spray-Technology-Fundamentals-and-Applications-Game-Winning-Strategies_4241.html
October 15, 2008
This article presents the fundamental concepts of the discharge coefficient, KD, of a relief valve or a safety relief valve, and flow resistance factor, KR, of a rupture disk, and their proper use in sizing an emergency relief system. When these devices are used to protect a pressure vessel, they must be certified according to ASME code in the U.S. Both the discharge coefficient and the flow resistance...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Discharge-Coefficients-and-Flow-Resistance-Factors_4242.html
October 15, 2008
As regulatory issues, environmental sensitivity, and longterm water supply concerns increase, the chemical process industries (CPI) are considering ways to reduce their water discharges. In fact, more and more companies are evaluating the viability of zero-liquid-discharge (ZLD) processes. This usually involves consideration of evaporation and crystallization technologies, which can be very expensive from...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Strategies-to-Minimize-Wastewater-Discharge_4243.html
September 15, 2008
Process engineers understand how to harness the power of closed-loop multi-variable control in their plants. The evolution of digital control in the chemical process industries (CPI) has provided that power. Yet digital control represents just one facet of optimization and improvement within operations. With increased digitization, the universes of process control and information technology (IT) are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Path-to-the-Perfect-Plant_4170.html
September 15, 2008
The need to conserve water is becoming a common concern throughout the world. Whether this is due to the cost of water, availability of water, or environmental concerns, water conservation is becoming a major focal point, both in the public and private sector. In those areas where renewable water resources are limited, and in regions where there are significant environmental concerns and costs associated...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Water-Reuse-and-Conservation-in-the-CPI_4171.html
September 15, 2008
Today, companies in the chemical process industries (CPI) are faced with increased operating expenses, reductions in the number of qualified workers, strong competition and the need to do more with less. To meet these challenges, many companies are making use of advancements in instrumentation and control technologies to optimize plant performance. These advancements often lie in improved electronic...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/From-Tap-to-Transmitter_4173.html
September 15, 2008
Each compressed air system is typically composed of one or more compressors with a power source, control system, intake air filter, after cooler and separator, air receiver, air dryer, interconnecting piping and a distribution system to deliver air to points of application. Because the air leaving the compressor is generally saturated, any reduction in temperature will cause water to begin condensing...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Predicting-Water-Content-of-Compressed-Air_4174.html
September 15, 2008
There are many criteria that the engineer considers when optimizing: maximization of product yield or quality; minimization of recycle flow or energy consumption; and economic indicators, such as maximization of profits, net present worth (NPW) and minimization of payback period (PBP). Instead of simply focusing on the most important criterion, it would be preferable to optimize the process for several...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Optimize-your-Process-Plant-for-More-than-One-Objective_4175.html
August 15, 2008
  Caking occurs when an easy-flowing powder becomes cohesive after storage or transport, forming agglomerates comprised of individual particles that are bonded together. As a consequence, a powder that flowed freely during packaging may contain lumps when the package is opened by a customer; a silo that readily discharges a bulk material when in continuous operation may become plugged when its feeder...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Prevent-Caking-and-Unintended-Agglomeration_4084.html
August 15, 2008
Gate Gate valves are designed to operate fully open or fully closed; When fully opened, there is very little pressure drop across the valve, and when fully closed there is good sealing against pressure. With the proper mating of a disk to the seat ring, very little or no leakage occurs across the disk when the gate valve is closed. Gate valves open or close slowly, which prevents fluid hammer and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-your-Fingertips-Valves_4087.html
August 15, 2008
An organizational lessons-learned system facilitates the transfer of knowledge from one project team to another Lessons learned is a method of collecting the unique and important knowledge gleaned from experience. While most engineers have heard of this often cited, even cliché term, few really know what this is, and even fewer know how to set up a proper lessons-learned process and use it...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-A-Lessons-Learned-Knowledge-Management-System-for-Engineers_4088.html
August 15, 2008
The continuing growth in the importance of chemical processing, including oil-and-gas processing, increases the need to understand prediction methods for chemical properties and chatacteristics and the impact that these properties have on unit operations, process simulation and design. A variety of mathematical relationships have been developed to predict chemical compound characteristics. Though some of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Predicting-Physical-Properties-of-Hydrocarbon-Compounds_4089.html
August 15, 2008
As fuel prices continue to rise, energy management is everyone’s business Market trends suggest that the demand for energy resources will rise dramatically over the next 25 years with the global demand for all energy sources forecast to grow by 57% and the U.S. demand for all types of energy expected to increase by 31% (see Figure 1). By 2030, it is expected that 56% of the world’s energy use...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Making-Energy-Efficiency-Pay_4090.html
August 15, 2008
The techniques used for sterilization have a major impact on product quality and safety where pristine processing is needed The inactivation and elimination of bacteria are pressing issues in the chemical process industries (CPI) where high-purity conditions are needed. High accuracy in ensuring sterility is vital due to the serious implications of having products come in contact with contaminated...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Novel-and-Conventional-Approaches-to-Sterilization_4091.html
July 15, 2008
Vacuum is any system of reduced pressure, relative to local (typically atmospheric) pressure. Achieved with a pump, vacuum systems are commonly used to: Remove excess air and its constituents Remove excess reactants or unwanted byproducts Reduce the boiling point Dry solute material Create a pressure differential for initiating transport of material Liquid-ring and dry pumps offer the most advantages for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-your-Fingertips-Vacuum-Pumps_4005.html
July 15, 2008
  Plant performance and safety are key issues for the chemical process industries (CPI) and level measurement plays a crucial role in both. Level measurement helps maintain material inventory at economic quantities, improves product quality and ensures a smooth continuous process. It maximizes plant output by avoiding spillage, system clogging, or process upsets. An accurate level-measurement system...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-1-Level-Measurement-Technologies-For-the-CPI_4009.html
July 15, 2008
Many types of industrial processes utilize liquid level sensors to provide the information needed to monitor and control a process. This enables the design parameters to be maintained in order to produce the end product at the desired level of quality and throughput. Typical sensors may measure product level, interface level, as well as temperature. The type of measurement and the sensor technology will...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-2-Liquid-Level-Measurement-Options-In-the-CPI_4010.html
July 15, 2008
The incorporation of floating solids into liquids is a common challenge throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) in operations ranging from polymerization reactions to fermentation processes and water treatment. Yet, it has received much less attention in comparison to processes involving heavy solids that tend to settle. Both established and recently proven design recommendations for incorporating...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Incorporate-Floating-Solids-Into-Liquids_4011.html
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