AccountGuest Edition My Account My Log In

Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 361 - 380 of 523 stories.
August 15, 2008
  Caking occurs when an easy-flowing powder becomes cohesive after storage or transport, forming agglomerates comprised of individual particles that are bonded together. As a consequence, a powder that flowed freely during packaging may contain lumps when the package is opened by a customer; a silo that readily discharges a bulk material when in continuous operation may become plugged when its feeder...
August 15, 2008
Gate Gate valves are designed to operate fully open or fully closed; When fully opened, there is very little pressure drop across the valve, and when fully closed there is good sealing against pressure. With the proper mating of a disk to the seat ring, very little or no leakage occurs across the disk when the gate valve is closed. Gate valves open or close slowly, which prevents fluid hammer and...
August 15, 2008
An organizational lessons-learned system facilitates the transfer of knowledge from one project team to another Lessons learned is a method of collecting the unique and important knowledge gleaned from experience. While most engineers have heard of this often cited, even cliché term, few really know what this is, and even fewer know how to set up a proper lessons-learned process and use it...
August 15, 2008
The continuing growth in the importance of chemical processing, including oil-and-gas processing, increases the need to understand prediction methods for chemical properties and chatacteristics and the impact that these properties have on unit operations, process simulation and design. A variety of mathematical relationships have been developed to predict chemical compound characteristics. Though some of...
August 15, 2008
As fuel prices continue to rise, energy management is everyone’s business Market trends suggest that the demand for energy resources will rise dramatically over the next 25 years with the global demand for all energy sources forecast to grow by 57% and the U.S. demand for all types of energy expected to increase by 31% (see Figure 1). By 2030, it is expected that 56% of the world’s energy use...
August 15, 2008
The techniques used for sterilization have a major impact on product quality and safety where pristine processing is needed The inactivation and elimination of bacteria are pressing issues in the chemical process industries (CPI) where high-purity conditions are needed. High accuracy in ensuring sterility is vital due to the serious implications of having products come in contact with contaminated...
July 15, 2008
Vacuum is any system of reduced pressure, relative to local (typically atmospheric) pressure. Achieved with a pump, vacuum systems are commonly used to: Remove excess air and its constituents Remove excess reactants or unwanted byproducts Reduce the boiling point Dry solute material Create a pressure differential for initiating transport of material Liquid-ring and dry pumps offer the most advantages for...
July 15, 2008
  Plant performance and safety are key issues for the chemical process industries (CPI) and level measurement plays a crucial role in both. Level measurement helps maintain material inventory at economic quantities, improves product quality and ensures a smooth continuous process. It maximizes plant output by avoiding spillage, system clogging, or process upsets. An accurate level-measurement system...
July 15, 2008
Many types of industrial processes utilize liquid level sensors to provide the information needed to monitor and control a process. This enables the design parameters to be maintained in order to produce the end product at the desired level of quality and throughput. Typical sensors may measure product level, interface level, as well as temperature. The type of measurement and the sensor technology will...
July 15, 2008
The incorporation of floating solids into liquids is a common challenge throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) in operations ranging from polymerization reactions to fermentation processes and water treatment. Yet, it has received much less attention in comparison to processes involving heavy solids that tend to settle. Both established and recently proven design recommendations for incorporating...
July 15, 2008
With the increasing demand for security, drums and other liquid vessels that contain valuable or hazardous liquids can be retrofitted with a simple dispensing-valve system that virtually eliminates leakage and ensures product integrity Although the storage, security, handling and dispensing of both potentially hazardous and valuable liquids can present some measure of risk, these risks can be reduced...
July 15, 2008
Workers in the chemical process industries (CPI) would certainly benefit from the "perfect" glove that would be thick enough for thermal insulation, thin enough to promote dexterity and tough enough to protect workers from cuts and abrasion. The glove would also protect against all known chemicals and be offered at a minimal price. This perfect glove, however, does not exist. Processors and...
June 15, 2008
Compressed air is often referred to as the fourth utility, and yet for an upstart business or process there is no commercial infrastructure that provides a core supply as exists with gas, electricity and water. When a need for compressed air is identified in planning and feasibility studies, it is necessary for the owners of the process or business to develop and maintain their own systems. Often the...
June 15, 2008
Compressed air is your most expensive utility. This is a fact that has been documented time and time again. It takes 7 to 8 hp of electricity to produce 1 hp in an airtool. In many plants, the compressed air system is the largest user of electricity. Yet, despite rising utility rates, compressed-air-system efficiency is frequently misunderstood or too often overlooked. Every plant or processing facility...
June 15, 2008
This sixth and final part of a series of articles [ 1 – 5] on piping for process plants discusses practical issues of leak testing and verification of piping systems. Leak Testing Leak testing and pressure testing are often used synonymously. However, pressure testing is a misnomer when referring to leak testing of piping systems. By definition, a pressure test is the procedure performed on a relief...
June 15, 2008
Applications Dehumidification by cooling or dessication has a variety of applications, including: Preventing moisture regain. Nearly all materials have some affinity for moisture based on surface characteristics and the amount of surface exposed to humid air. Moisture regain occurs when moist particles stick together. Preventing condensation. Air holds water vapor in proportion to its temperature. Cold...
June 15, 2008
In many plants that batch-blend bulk products, weigh batching is a manual, time-consuming operation in which ingredients are weighed individually before being discharged to a blender or some other process vessel. A significant number of such plants could benefit from the installation of an automated weigh-batching system. For small as well as large operations, an automated weigh-batching system can pay for...
June 15, 2008
An automated spreadsheet method can quickly help minimize fresh hydrogen consumption while maximizing hydrogen recovery and reuse in petroleum refineries and petrochemical complexes In petroleum refineries and petrochemical complexes, there are many hydrogen consumers, such as hydrotreaters, hydrocrackers, isomerization units and lubricant plants. There are also hydrogen producers, such as hydrogen plants...
June 15, 2008
One of the earliest applications for zirconium in the chemical process industries (CPI) is for sulfuric acid service. Used commonly during the manufacture of chemicals as a catalyst, dehydrating agent, absorbent, or an oxidizing or reducing agent, sulfuric acid is one of the most important and the largest produced inorganic chemicals in the world. Zirconium has been chosen for sulfuric acid environments...
May 15, 2008
  Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an area of technology that has received national and international attention. CCS is seen by some as a way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decrease the threat of global warming. Consequently, proponents have increased pressure on state and federal governments to make such reductions mandatory. Although the benefits of CCS...
Pages: « Previous  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Next »

Get more from
Get email updates in your inbox


Subscribe to:
Chemical Engineering Magazine

Chemical Engineering Magazine and Archives

Plant Cost Index

Join us on... Twitter LinkedIn

LinkedIn Groups

Our LinkedIn group is now over 28,000 members strong!

  1. Join other CPI professionals from all over the globe and share best practices, expertise, concerns and more.
  2. Provide feedback to Chemical Engineering Editors

Current members represent Worley Parsons, DuPont, SABIC, Fluor, Air Products, LyondellBasell, Nalco, Dow Chemical, Dow Corning, BASF, Jacobs Engineering, ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron and more.

Join Now

We also offer the following subgroup for more targeted discussions:

Search the Buyers' Guide

Plant Cost Index

Facts at Your Fingertips (archive)

Ask the Experts

Back Issues
To access this area, please log in or create an account.
Forgot your password?
Request it now.
Live chat by BoldChat