Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 381 - 400 of 527 stories.
June 15, 2008
In many plants that batch-blend bulk products, weigh batching is a manual, time-consuming operation in which ingredients are weighed individually before being discharged to a blender or some other process vessel. A significant number of such plants could benefit from the installation of an automated weigh-batching system. For small as well as large operations, an automated weigh-batching system can pay for...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Automating-Your-Weigh-Batching-System_3953.html
June 15, 2008
An automated spreadsheet method can quickly help minimize fresh hydrogen consumption while maximizing hydrogen recovery and reuse in petroleum refineries and petrochemical complexes In petroleum refineries and petrochemical complexes, there are many hydrogen consumers, such as hydrotreaters, hydrocrackers, isomerization units and lubricant plants. There are also hydrogen producers, such as hydrogen plants...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Hydrogen-Pinch-Analysis-Made-Easy_3972.html
June 15, 2008
One of the earliest applications for zirconium in the chemical process industries (CPI) is for sulfuric acid service. Used commonly during the manufacture of chemicals as a catalyst, dehydrating agent, absorbent, or an oxidizing or reducing agent, sulfuric acid is one of the most important and the largest produced inorganic chemicals in the world. Zirconium has been chosen for sulfuric acid environments...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Zirconium-and-its-Alloys-For-Extreme-Sulfuric-Acid-Applications_3973.html
May 15, 2008
  Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an area of technology that has received national and international attention. CCS is seen by some as a way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decrease the threat of global warming. Consequently, proponents have increased pressure on state and federal governments to make such reductions mandatory. Although the benefits of CCS...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Technology-Showcase-Carbon-Capture-and-Storage_3856.html
May 15, 2008
To many, the concept of a "smart plant" involves integrating critical process subsystems and instrumentation with the goal of streamlining operations, increasing production and, simply put, making more money. But looking at the bigger picture, the true goal of having an integrated smart plant isn’t solely automating processes or capturing knowledge electronically. The ultimate goal is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/An-Integrated-Approach-to-Industrial-Security_3861.html
May 15, 2008
Accurate temperature measurement is not difficult. It does, however, require you to think about accuracy from specification and selection, all the way up to installation and operation of your temperature-measurement sensor. There are opportunities to improve accuracy during each of these phases, as well as opportunities to accidentally undermine all of your previous improvement efforts. Determining the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Warming-Up-to-Accurate-Temperature-Measurement_3862.html
May 15, 2008
  FIGURE 1. In a typical system for wastewater treatment, the liquid feed is introduced at the top of the column and steam is introduced at the bottom In recent years, steam strippers have become integral parts of industrial plant operations. The goal when designing these types of columns is to have reliable operation for as long as possible. This article details the methodology used when designing...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Designing-Steam-Stripping-Columns-for-Wastewater_3863.html
May 15, 2008
Most common acids can be stored in horizontal or vertical ASME-type tanks, as shown in the figures to the right, or vertical API-type tanks. Horizontal, carbon-steel ASME-type tanks of 10,000 — 40,000 gal capacity should have a plate thickness of 3/8 in. with dished heads of the same thickness. The thickness includes a corrosion allowance of 1/4 in., which provides a tank life of 15 — 20 years...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-Your-Fingertips-Acid-Storage_3864.html
May 15, 2008
  Effective use of capital in the ownership and management of manufacturing assets is critical to the financial performance of companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). Many of these companies use benchmarking in compliance with applicable laws and antitrust regulations to compare, identify, and adopt industry best practices that drive the capital effectiveness of their project development...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Benchmarking-for-Success_3865.html
May 15, 2008
A. Alexander and F. Muzzio, Rutgers University Proper blender selection can improve the mixing of bulk solids. Be sure to consider post-blending segregation problems Mixing and blending of bulk solids occurs frequently in many industrial processes. Though small-scale mixing and blending functions were in use back in the early days of man (for example, mixing flour, salt, yeast and water to make bread)...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Blender-Selection-And-Avoidance-of-Post-Blender-Segregation_3867.html
May 5, 2008
Demands in the chemical processing industry to reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint are higher than ever before.  Correct sizing and selection of vacuum systems can contribute significantly to optimizing throughput and efficiency, thus reducing energy consumption, capital and running costs, and pollution. This article compares traditional ‘wet’ vacuum systems, such as steam...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Environmentally-Friendly-Dry-Vacuum-Pumps-Save-Energy-with-the-Lowest-Cost-of-Ownership-in-Chemical-and-Biofuel-Processes_3848.html
April 15, 2008
Packed Columns [1] A packed column is a vertical, cylindrical pressure vessel containing one or more sections of a packing material over whose surface the liquid flows downward by gravity, as a film or as droplets, between packing elements. Vapor flows upward through the wetted packing, contacting the liquid and facilitating absorption of the vapor into the liquid. Packings are offered in either random or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-your-Fingertips-Random-Tower-Packing_3792.html
April 15, 2008
Convey tough bulk materials that tend to pack, cake, smear, break apart or fluidize, and prevent separation of blended products Flexible screw conveyors are suitable for use with most bulk materials, from sub-micron powders to large pellets, both free-flowing and non-free-flowing. They are capable of conveying bulk materials at any angle, moving over or under obstructions and through small holes in walls...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Move-Difficult-to-Handle-Bulk-Materials-with-Flexible-Screw-Conveyors_3795.html
April 15, 2008
  Water hammer — a high-pressure surge or wave created by the kinetic energy of the moving liquid — is not only a system issue, but primarily a safety concern. Understanding the nature and severity of water hammer in a steam-and-condensate system will allow prevention of its destructive forces. A better understanding will also help with the introduction of preventative measures into system...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-The-Number-One-Problem-in-a-Steam-System-Water-Hammer_3796.html
April 15, 2008
  Industrial furnaces, or direct-fired heaters, are only as good as the burners that supply them with thermal energy for heat transfer and endothermic chemical reactions. This article presents equations that permit calculation of such important burner-operating characteristics as flame length, flame diameter, ignitability, and flameout conditions for both very high and very low velocities. The data...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Fired-Heater-Burner-Performance_3797.html
April 15, 2008
  This fifth in a series of articles [1 – 4] on piping design discusses the practical issues of installation and cleaning. Pipe installation The installation of pipe follows its fabrication and is very frequently a part of it. The installation of pipe can be accomplished in the following four primary ways, or combinations thereof: Field fabricate and install Shop fabricate and field erected kid...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Piping-Design-Part-5-Installation-and-Cleaning_3798.html
April 15, 2008
A good understanding of the reaction chemistry is needed for a safe process design It is a fact that safety-related incidents do occur in the chemical process industries (CPI). These incidents have, in part, led to increased attention to reactive-chemical issues by industry, government and other stakeholders. We know that good safety-management systems take the reactivity of chemicals as well as the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Manager-A-Checklist-for-Safer-Chemical-Batch-Reactions_3800.html
March 15, 2008
  This is an important year for any company that makes, uses, buys or sells chemicals or products containing chemicals. On June 1, 2007, the European Union’s (EU) Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) came into force. Implementation of REACH begins in earnest in 2008. Widely viewed as one of the most important pieces of EU...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-1-Are-You-Ready-For-REACH_3727.html
March 15, 2008
On Dec. 18, 2006, the European Union (EU) passed a new law creating a single integrated system for the registration, evaluation and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-2-REACH-A-Timely-Overview_3728.html
March 15, 2008
An understanding of instrumentation is valuable in evaluating and troubleshooting column performance Instrumentation is critical to understanding and troubleshooting all processes. Very few engineers specialize in this field, and many learn about instrumentation through experience, myth and rumor. A good understanding of the various types of instrumentation used on columns is a valuable tool for engineers...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Column-Instrumentation-Basics_3729.html
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