Archives :: Technical & Practical

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March 15, 2008
The batch reactor is the workhorse of the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Within it, many different unit operations are performed such as chemical reactions, bioreactions, crystallization, distillation and dissolution. Despite their significance to the industry, batch reactors have been controlled by the same underlying method for the past 50 years. This article discusses a relatively...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Sensing-Change-in-Batch-Reactors_3730.html
March 15, 2008
Tube plugging is probably the most frequently used maintenance and repair technique for the tube side of an exchanger. This article provides information on how to locate the positions of tube failures and discusses why it is important to know such information. It describes how to find out where the tubes failed and explains how to analyze what caused failures, seen from the tube side. Descriptions of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Maintaining-and-Repairing-Heat-Exchanger-Tubes_3731.html
February 15, 2008
Hydrocarbon leaks can disrupt recirculated cooling-water systems. Here’s an outline of effects and remedies Water is often the fluid of choice for cooling systems in the chemical process industries (CPI). Recirculated cooling-water systems are used to control the temperature of process fluids, which is necessary for process control and to achieve target product yields and specifications. Hydrocarbon...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Manager-Caring-for-Cooling-Water-Systems_3664.html
February 15, 2008
The interior surfaces of your storage tanks are constantly at risk. If you walk past a tank often without giving thought to what is happening on the inside, it is because you trust the interior coating to protect not only the storage vessel, but also to protect the product being stored from any corrosion that might occur on the tank. Without a doubt, corrosion is the principal enemy of a storage vessel. It...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Tank-Coatings-Covering-the-Basics-of-Selection-and-Specification_3665.html
February 15, 2008
Reduce the problems associated with handling hazardous liquids by following these guidelines Pumps are one of the most ubiquitous items of equipment found in chemical processing plants. Often, they are used to transfer hazardous liquids, such as flammable, combustible, toxic and corrosive chemicals. In order to ensure safety during pumping, certain design and operating practices should be followed. This...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Pump-Hazardous-Liquids-Safely_3667.html
February 15, 2008
Careful control of water and steam chemistry at CPI facilities can pay off handsomely in reliable operation Sometimes lost in the hustle and bustle of production issues at chemical-process-industries (CPI) facilities is that high-purity water, and steam produced thereby, is the lifeblood of the plant. Yet, equipment failures and curtailed production due to water and steam issues can cost a company hundreds...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-CPI-Water-and-Steam-Chemistry_3668.html
February 15, 2008
The failure of a device or of a group of components can lead to overpressurization and subsequent adverse events, such as fire, explosion, spill or release. The most common causes of overpressurization are listed below. Understanding the circumstances surrounding overpressurization will help an engineer to avoid these failures. External Fire According to API RP 520 and 521 standards, a fire-exposed area is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Causes-of-Overpressurization_3671.html
January 15, 2008
Centrifugation is the method of choice in the chemical process industries (CPI) for separating solids from liquids. It relies on the G-forces generated by high-speed rotation to recover solids or liquids from slurries, as well as clarify liquids or classify solids. Centrifuges can be categorized as either sedimentation or filtration units. Sedimentation centrifugation relies on a difference in density...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-Your-Fingertips-Sedimentation-Centrifuging_3601.html
January 15, 2008
Among the many types of pollution-abatement systems that are in use today, wet fluegas desulfurization (FGD) systems — also known as wet scrubbers — are notoriously capital- and maintenance-intensive. These systems are widely used by electric power plants and chemical process facilities to capture and neutralize sulfur-laden fluegas, and help plant operators to meet strict federal and state...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Controlling-SO2-Without-Corroding-the-Bottom-Line_3605.html
January 15, 2008
Corralling gigabytes of predictive maintenance data isn’t easy, but it’s essential for streamlining your process Plant maintenance is one of the disciplines in a chemical process environment that uses gigabytes of technical and operational data on a daily basis. Of course, managing an industrial plant involves a large amount of data, which can be acquired, stored and represented in numerous...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Computerized-Maintenance-Management-Systems-For-Effective-Plant-Performance_3606.html
January 15, 2008
Low-cost, corrosion-resistant castings are being produced using epoxy and mineral aggregates Stainless steel, painted and plated cast-iron and steel structures are being replaced at a fraction of the cost with high-precision polymer castings (PPCs). PPCs can usually be cast to tolerance, thus eliminating machining. Because they are produced from an epoxy-resin material, painting, plating and anodizing are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Corrosion-Resistance-Using-Rock-and-Glue_3607.html
January 15, 2008
Knowing the options in fluid-circulation designs helps in the selection process Over the past few decades, hundreds of seal geometries and a fair number of seal categories have evolved. Recently, the distinction between single- and dual-mechanical seals has been brought into focus by heightened safety and environmental concerns. Dual seals are often selected where safety is of paramount concern. To aid in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Seal-Fluid-Circulation-Devices-Understanding-the-Differences_3608.html
January 15, 2008
By utilizing efficient scheduling software, companies in the CPI can improve enterprise agility and compliance In the fast-paced and ever-changing world of chemical processing, companies are constantly trying to keep up with the latest technology, while at the same time creating detailed schedules that enable them to maximize customer service, enterprise agility and compliance, and minimize inventory...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Operations-and-Maintenance-Technology-and-Scheduling-The-Perfect-Chemistry_3610.html
December 15, 2007
Seals are assemblies of elements that prevent the passage of a solid, liquid, gas or vapor from one system to another. When a seal allows leakage of material, failure has occurred. This guide provides an overview of common seal types and a discussion of seal failure to aid in choosing the most effective seal and avoiding future failure. Seal Types Seals types can be classified within two broad categories...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Avoiding-Seal-Failure_3552.html
December 15, 2007
Chemical products and processes make modern life possible. The systems that provide housing, transportation, health care, and food for billions of people rely on chemical products, but as demand for these essential materials grows, the environmental impacts of the products and the processes that create them are becoming a greater concern. As this concern about the magnitude of the associated environmental...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Green-Engineering-and-the-Design-of-Chemical-Processes-and-Products_3558.html
December 15, 2007
What we can do to support its goals Green engineering, as explained by chemists and bio-scientists, includes production of energy and materials from "green" feedstocks, such as biomass and microorganisms, with the intent of reducing energy, waste, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and water consumption. By extension, other contributions that reduce GHG emissions also support green engineering. The obvious...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-The-Role-of-Chemical-Engineers-in-Green-Engineering_3559.html
December 15, 2007
Demanding application requirements coupled with improved downstream control devices and enhanced instrument diagnostics have led to major changes in process-valve monitoring and control. Factors driving these changes in the chemical process industries (CPI) include the need for lower plant operating costs, reduced maintenance requirements, greater efficiency and reliability in onstream performance, and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Advances-in-Valve-Position-Monitoring_3560.html
December 15, 2007
Although current process simulators contain an extensive library of thermodynamic models and unit operations, they do not contain many new, complicated, or lesser known models. For many companies, particularly those in the petrochemical refining industry, it is very important to have access to new models that are not yet available in common process simulators like AspenPlus or Hysys. For that reason, an...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-CAPE-Open-An-International-Standard-for-Process-Simulation_3561.html
December 15, 2007
This article introduces a simple yet accurate way to calculate the wetted surface area of a partially filled horizontal vessel with semi-elliptical heads. This information is often needed for the sizing of relief devices. API Recommended Practice 521 specifies that a vessel containing liquid, mounted such that its lowest point is less than 7.62 m (25 ft) above ground level, must be fitted with a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Accurate-Wetted-Areas-For-Partially-Filled-Vessels_3562.html
December 15, 2007
Scales are available in a dizzying array of types and sizes to suit different needs. Although it’s easy to default to price in order to eliminate the tedious task of researching your options, a basic knowledge of these ten key factors can help you secure the scale with the best overall value and utility for your specific application. #1: Primary Use Determining the proper style and size of the scale...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Weighing-Your-Options-The-10-Most-Important-Scale-Considerations_3564.html
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