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November 15, 2007
As the chemical process industries (CPI) make the transition from communication protocols and systems that are cable-ready to those that are wireless, the conversation is changing. On the plant floor and in the executive suite, terms such as mesh network and interoperability bring new meaning to the manufacturing environment. But what does it all mean? How can companies truly begin to decode this new...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Going-Wireless_3495.html
November 15, 2007
Steam traps are an integral part of steam systems in the chemical process industries (CPI). Steam is commonly used to add energy into a process through its latent heat (steam heat), while the resultant sensible heat (hot condensate) drains through steam traps. The operation of these traps influences the entire steam system’s function and reliability. Steam trap operation has a bearing on the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Importance-of-Intensive-Steam-Trap-Management_3496.html
November 15, 2007
Liquid density is important to engineers throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of storage vessels. In hazard analysis, knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of the relief valves to protect the system. In vapor-liquid operations, such as distillation, knowledge of liquid density is required to determine column diameter. For...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Liquid-Density-Of-the-Elements_3497.html
November 15, 2007
Although some CPI management may not realize it, PLCs (programmable logic controllers) are the brains behind many operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). A malfunctioning PLC can cause lines, plants and even operations such as city bridges and water stations to shut down. Thousands to millions of dollars could be lost in association with one PLC that maintenance personnel may not even know...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/PLC-Maintenance-Management_3498.html
November 15, 2007
To ensure the health and safety of workers, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) in 1983. Initially designed to protect workers in the manufacturing sector, the HCS was expanded in 1987 to cover all industries where workers could be exposed to hazardous chemicals. This article gives an overview of the OSHA requirements for material...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Managing-Material-Safety-Data-Sheets-in-the-Workplace_3499.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information The use of safety standards, particularly IEC 61508 [1] and IEC 61511 [2], has increased rapidly in the past several years. Along with the adoption of these standards has come an increase in the need for accurate reliability data for devices used in safety instrumented systems (SIS), both...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Mechanical-Failure-Rate-Data-for-Low-Demand-Applications_3390.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   This fourth in a series of articles* on piping for process plants examines two topics that may, at first, seem to fall outside the scope of chemical engineering — piping codes and the pipe fabrication. Obviously chemical engineers will not be welding pipes together, but understanding the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-for-Process-Plants-Part-4-Codes-and-Fabrication_3391.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   Explosion prevention must be a primary objective wherever the process of transferring powders into flammable solvents is utilized, irrelevant of the industry and existing practices, in accordance with regulatory guidelines such as the ATEX directives (Directive 94/9/EC, 1994 and Directive...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Prevent-Explosions-During-Transfer-Of-Powders-Into-Flammable-Solvents_3394.html
September 1, 2007
    The screening process has always been the workhorse for solid-solid separation in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, mineral processing, coal and agricultural sectors. It can be done in dry or wet mode depending on the state of the feed and desired state of the product. It serves many purposes, for example scalping, separation of fines and coarse, dewatering, de-sliming and trash removal. Some...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dry-Screening-Sorting-Out-The-Basic-Concepts_3370.html
July 1, 2007
    Most columns shut down without fires. Yet most refineries and chemical plants at some time or another have experienced spontaneous or hot work ignitions in at least one column. When this occurs inside a column during or after shutdown, the results can be devastating and dangerous. This paper concentrates on the fires related to packing in columns.   Many refineries and chemical plants...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Causes-and-Prevention-of-Packing-Fires_3124.html
July 1, 2007
    Traditional pressure-relief devices are, at times, unable to protect vessels at the elevated temperatures experienced during fires. As witnessed by numerous examples throughout history, loss of containment and the subsequent explosions that may occur with an over-pressurized system can lead to catastrophic results in terms of equipment damage, monetary loss, environmental impact and even...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Emergency-Pressure-Relief-For-External-Fire-Scenarios_3126.html
July 1, 2007
    Piping design is the job of configuring the physical aspects of pipe and components in an effort to conform with piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), fluid-service requirements, associated material specifications, equipment-data sheets, and current good manufacturing practices (GMP) while meeting owner expectations. All of this must be accomplished within a pre-determined...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-Part-3-Design-Elements_3136.html
July 1, 2007
    As the nanoparticle market continues to swell, expertise is surfacing about nanoparticle grinding and dispersion processes. A grinding solution (wet grinding with agitator bead mills) achieves the production of nanoparticles with an average fineness of 40–100 nanometers (nm). However, dispersion doesn’t always come as easily. Chemists and process engineers found that many...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/NanoparticlesMild-Dispersion_3150.html
June 1, 2007
    Most assets depreciate, losing value over time as a result of wear and tear, age, or obsolescence. Corrosion, like depreciation, results in the often hidden cost of a non-cash expense — measurable in terms of reduced operating life — that reduces the value of assets. Many engineers in the chemical process industries (CPI) see corrosion on a “straight-line basis” in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-New-Approach-to-Corrosion-Monitoring_3123.html
June 1, 2007
    Process performance, quality and reliability depend directly on how a plant performs in real time. Yet many plants track and respond only to longterm averages. By measuring and responding to realtime measures, you can ensure:     Quick recovery from process upsets   Fast change-over to another product   Shortened batch-cycle times   Measuring and responding to the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Realtime-Metrics-for-Process-Performance_3135.html
June 1, 2007
    It's no secret that the chemical process industries (CPI) are being significantly impacted by the recent increases in energy costs. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the CPI's percentage of total operating costs that are attributable to energy range from about 7% to over 30%. Because of such intensive energy use, these industries - including manufacturers in chemicals, pulp and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Management-Consider-Supply-And-Demand_3148.html
June 1, 2007
      The cost to power fans and ventilators in the chemical process industries (CPI) is a significant consideration in efficient system design. More than 25% of the energy consumed in most CPI plants is used to power fans for ventilation and air-pollution-control systems. Annual operating costs for these units can easily exceed the initial capital cost of the equipment in two years (see...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Efficiency-Optimizing-the-Air-Power-Equation_3149.html
June 1, 2007
    Although sealing technologies rarely make the headline, when they do, its usually for a tragic reason, which demonstrates how important this small component really is. For example, on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds into its flight, after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed. The seal failure caused a flame leak from the SRB...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Small-but-mighty_3327.html
May 1, 2007
    The highly diversified field of industrial electrochemistry includes processes to synthesize organic and inorganic compounds, the conversion and storage of energy, galvanic deposition of metals and alloys. Electrochemistry also plays a lead role in corrosion protection, sensor devices, and other kinds of technology where charge transfer takes place at an electrified interface. Today, research...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Industrial-Electrochemistry-Safe-Clean-Green_3122.html
May 1, 2007
    Spreadsheets have been around almost as long as personal computers. While early versions were clumsy and limited in scope, today’s spreadsheet programs can do almost anything the user wants them to do. These broadened capabilities are made easier through the use of internal (built-in) functions, add-in programs and the use of macro programming. In this article, we explore how...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Using-Spreadsheets-As-Curve-Fitting-Tools_3133.html
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