Archives :: Technical & Practical

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December 15, 2007
Chemical products and processes make modern life possible. The systems that provide housing, transportation, health care, and food for billions of people rely on chemical products, but as demand for these essential materials grows, the environmental impacts of the products and the processes that create them are becoming a greater concern. As this concern about the magnitude of the associated environmental...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Green-Engineering-and-the-Design-of-Chemical-Processes-and-Products_3558.html
December 15, 2007
What we can do to support its goals Green engineering, as explained by chemists and bio-scientists, includes production of energy and materials from "green" feedstocks, such as biomass and microorganisms, with the intent of reducing energy, waste, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and water consumption. By extension, other contributions that reduce GHG emissions also support green engineering. The obvious...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-The-Role-of-Chemical-Engineers-in-Green-Engineering_3559.html
December 15, 2007
Demanding application requirements coupled with improved downstream control devices and enhanced instrument diagnostics have led to major changes in process-valve monitoring and control. Factors driving these changes in the chemical process industries (CPI) include the need for lower plant operating costs, reduced maintenance requirements, greater efficiency and reliability in onstream performance, and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Advances-in-Valve-Position-Monitoring_3560.html
December 15, 2007
Although current process simulators contain an extensive library of thermodynamic models and unit operations, they do not contain many new, complicated, or lesser known models. For many companies, particularly those in the petrochemical refining industry, it is very important to have access to new models that are not yet available in common process simulators like AspenPlus or Hysys. For that reason, an...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-CAPE-Open-An-International-Standard-for-Process-Simulation_3561.html
December 15, 2007
This article introduces a simple yet accurate way to calculate the wetted surface area of a partially filled horizontal vessel with semi-elliptical heads. This information is often needed for the sizing of relief devices. API Recommended Practice 521 specifies that a vessel containing liquid, mounted such that its lowest point is less than 7.62 m (25 ft) above ground level, must be fitted with a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Accurate-Wetted-Areas-For-Partially-Filled-Vessels_3562.html
December 15, 2007
Scales are available in a dizzying array of types and sizes to suit different needs. Although it’s easy to default to price in order to eliminate the tedious task of researching your options, a basic knowledge of these ten key factors can help you secure the scale with the best overall value and utility for your specific application. #1: Primary Use Determining the proper style and size of the scale...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Weighing-Your-Options-The-10-Most-Important-Scale-Considerations_3564.html
November 15, 2007
As the chemical process industries (CPI) make the transition from communication protocols and systems that are cable-ready to those that are wireless, the conversation is changing. On the plant floor and in the executive suite, terms such as mesh network and interoperability bring new meaning to the manufacturing environment. But what does it all mean? How can companies truly begin to decode this new...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Going-Wireless_3495.html
November 15, 2007
Steam traps are an integral part of steam systems in the chemical process industries (CPI). Steam is commonly used to add energy into a process through its latent heat (steam heat), while the resultant sensible heat (hot condensate) drains through steam traps. The operation of these traps influences the entire steam system’s function and reliability. Steam trap operation has a bearing on the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Importance-of-Intensive-Steam-Trap-Management_3496.html
November 15, 2007
Liquid density is important to engineers throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of storage vessels. In hazard analysis, knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of the relief valves to protect the system. In vapor-liquid operations, such as distillation, knowledge of liquid density is required to determine column diameter. For...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Liquid-Density-Of-the-Elements_3497.html
November 15, 2007
Although some CPI management may not realize it, PLCs (programmable logic controllers) are the brains behind many operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). A malfunctioning PLC can cause lines, plants and even operations such as city bridges and water stations to shut down. Thousands to millions of dollars could be lost in association with one PLC that maintenance personnel may not even know...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/PLC-Maintenance-Management_3498.html
November 15, 2007
To ensure the health and safety of workers, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) in 1983. Initially designed to protect workers in the manufacturing sector, the HCS was expanded in 1987 to cover all industries where workers could be exposed to hazardous chemicals. This article gives an overview of the OSHA requirements for material...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Managing-Material-Safety-Data-Sheets-in-the-Workplace_3499.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information The use of safety standards, particularly IEC 61508 [1] and IEC 61511 [2], has increased rapidly in the past several years. Along with the adoption of these standards has come an increase in the need for accurate reliability data for devices used in safety instrumented systems (SIS), both...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Mechanical-Failure-Rate-Data-for-Low-Demand-Applications_3390.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   This fourth in a series of articles* on piping for process plants examines two topics that may, at first, seem to fall outside the scope of chemical engineering — piping codes and the pipe fabrication. Obviously chemical engineers will not be welding pipes together, but understanding the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-for-Process-Plants-Part-4-Codes-and-Fabrication_3391.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   Explosion prevention must be a primary objective wherever the process of transferring powders into flammable solvents is utilized, irrelevant of the industry and existing practices, in accordance with regulatory guidelines such as the ATEX directives (Directive 94/9/EC, 1994 and Directive...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Prevent-Explosions-During-Transfer-Of-Powders-Into-Flammable-Solvents_3394.html
September 1, 2007
    The screening process has always been the workhorse for solid-solid separation in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, mineral processing, coal and agricultural sectors. It can be done in dry or wet mode depending on the state of the feed and desired state of the product. It serves many purposes, for example scalping, separation of fines and coarse, dewatering, de-sliming and trash removal. Some...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dry-Screening-Sorting-Out-The-Basic-Concepts_3370.html
July 1, 2007
    Most columns shut down without fires. Yet most refineries and chemical plants at some time or another have experienced spontaneous or hot work ignitions in at least one column. When this occurs inside a column during or after shutdown, the results can be devastating and dangerous. This paper concentrates on the fires related to packing in columns.   Many refineries and chemical plants...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Causes-and-Prevention-of-Packing-Fires_3124.html
July 1, 2007
    Traditional pressure-relief devices are, at times, unable to protect vessels at the elevated temperatures experienced during fires. As witnessed by numerous examples throughout history, loss of containment and the subsequent explosions that may occur with an over-pressurized system can lead to catastrophic results in terms of equipment damage, monetary loss, environmental impact and even...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Emergency-Pressure-Relief-For-External-Fire-Scenarios_3126.html
July 1, 2007
    Piping design is the job of configuring the physical aspects of pipe and components in an effort to conform with piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), fluid-service requirements, associated material specifications, equipment-data sheets, and current good manufacturing practices (GMP) while meeting owner expectations. All of this must be accomplished within a pre-determined...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-Part-3-Design-Elements_3136.html
July 1, 2007
    As the nanoparticle market continues to swell, expertise is surfacing about nanoparticle grinding and dispersion processes. A grinding solution (wet grinding with agitator bead mills) achieves the production of nanoparticles with an average fineness of 40–100 nanometers (nm). However, dispersion doesn’t always come as easily. Chemists and process engineers found that many...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/NanoparticlesMild-Dispersion_3150.html
June 1, 2007
    Most assets depreciate, losing value over time as a result of wear and tear, age, or obsolescence. Corrosion, like depreciation, results in the often hidden cost of a non-cash expense — measurable in terms of reduced operating life — that reduces the value of assets. Many engineers in the chemical process industries (CPI) see corrosion on a “straight-line basis” in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-New-Approach-to-Corrosion-Monitoring_3123.html
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