Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 441 - 460 of 533 stories.
June 1, 2007
    Process performance, quality and reliability depend directly on how a plant performs in real time. Yet many plants track and respond only to longterm averages. By measuring and responding to realtime measures, you can ensure:     Quick recovery from process upsets   Fast change-over to another product   Shortened batch-cycle times   Measuring and responding to the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Realtime-Metrics-for-Process-Performance_3135.html
June 1, 2007
    It's no secret that the chemical process industries (CPI) are being significantly impacted by the recent increases in energy costs. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the CPI's percentage of total operating costs that are attributable to energy range from about 7% to over 30%. Because of such intensive energy use, these industries - including manufacturers in chemicals, pulp and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Management-Consider-Supply-And-Demand_3148.html
June 1, 2007
      The cost to power fans and ventilators in the chemical process industries (CPI) is a significant consideration in efficient system design. More than 25% of the energy consumed in most CPI plants is used to power fans for ventilation and air-pollution-control systems. Annual operating costs for these units can easily exceed the initial capital cost of the equipment in two years (see...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Efficiency-Optimizing-the-Air-Power-Equation_3149.html
June 1, 2007
    Although sealing technologies rarely make the headline, when they do, its usually for a tragic reason, which demonstrates how important this small component really is. For example, on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds into its flight, after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed. The seal failure caused a flame leak from the SRB...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Small-but-mighty_3327.html
May 1, 2007
    The highly diversified field of industrial electrochemistry includes processes to synthesize organic and inorganic compounds, the conversion and storage of energy, galvanic deposition of metals and alloys. Electrochemistry also plays a lead role in corrosion protection, sensor devices, and other kinds of technology where charge transfer takes place at an electrified interface. Today, research...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Industrial-Electrochemistry-Safe-Clean-Green_3122.html
May 1, 2007
    Spreadsheets have been around almost as long as personal computers. While early versions were clumsy and limited in scope, today’s spreadsheet programs can do almost anything the user wants them to do. These broadened capabilities are made easier through the use of internal (built-in) functions, add-in programs and the use of macro programming. In this article, we explore how...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Using-Spreadsheets-As-Curve-Fitting-Tools_3133.html
May 1, 2007
    Fired heaters are used considerably in the chemical process industries (CPI), for heating crude oil in the petroleum refining and petrochemical sectors. Unfortunately, fired heaters are often taken for granted and neglected more than other equipment in terms of operation and maintenance. Proper care and attention to these heaters can prolong run lengths and increase reliability and safe...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Minimizing-Flame-Impingements-In-Fired-Heaters_3134.html
May 1, 2007
    A detailed follow up of the cations present in the wastewater of the Monsanto Europe site in Antwerp, Belgium, has led to an increased understanding of changing wastewater treatment plant performance. The chemical process industries' (CPI) other wastewater treatment plants that handle continuously changing mixtures of different manufacturing plant effluents should also consider routine...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Monitor-Cations-in-CPI-Wastewater-for-Better-Performance_3146.html
May 1, 2007
    Pure water is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of a vast amount of products in the U.S. and, of course, throughout the world. In the industry for which I work, electricity generation, high-purity water is an absolute must for feeding high-pressure steam generators. But of course, steam generation is also important in the petroleum-refining and petrochemical industries...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Microfiltration-For-CPI-Wastewater_3147.html
May 1, 2007
Business software applications, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) — the broad set of activities that are supported by application software to help companies manage business activities, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service and tracking orders — have all but saturated the large end of companies...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Sanctioned-cheating_3336.html
May 1, 2007
Business software applications, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) — the broad set of activities that are supported by application software to help companies manage business activities, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service and tracking orders — have all but saturated the large end of companies...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Sanctioned-cheating_3340.html
April 1, 2007
    Flow measurement plays a critical role throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Repeatable measurements are needed to maintain consistent production and quality standards in a wide range of process-control applications. Inaccurate liquid- and gas-flow measurements can mean the difference between profit and loss, and in some cases, can lead to more serious consequences. This article...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Evaluating-Industrial-Flowmeters_3144.html
April 1, 2007
    With typical operations running around the clock, the chemical process industry (CPI) demands high performance from its instrumentation. Today's flowmetering solutions include tools for the entire life cycle of a flowmeter. From engineering, commissioning and start up to operations and maintenance, advanced diagnostics and onsite device-verification features help to maximize plant...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Advances-in-Industrial-Flowmetering_3145.html
April 1, 2007
    Free trade agreements, global manufacturing standards and the Internet have made it possible for companies to do business in countries they would not have considered 20 years ago. Open is a world of opportunity, but for processors of pharmaceuticals, semiconductors and other materials that must meet high standards of product purity and performance, the competition is stiffer than ever as...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Target-Costing_3342.html
April 1, 2007
    Modeling the behavior of bulk solids has been a longstanding challenge for researchers and practitioners alike. The differences between fluids, rigid solids and bulk solids can best be illustrated by their responses to applied stress. For instance, when an external stress is applied to a fluid, it is transmitted equally in all directions. The response of a rigid solid (such as a metal bar) to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Modeling-Granular-Flow-Using-Discrete-Element-Method-From-Theory-to-Practice_3344.html
March 1, 2007
    Occupational dangers in the chemical process industries (CPI) are many, with falls, respiratory hazards, and explosion risks confronted daily. One hazard, however, causes no pain nor visible scars. Its effects accumulate with each overexposure and can go unnoticed, often for decades. If statistics are any indication, it is the most common permanent and preventable occupational injury at the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Hearing-Protection-For-CPI-Workers_3120.html
March 1, 2007
  Pipe flanges are used to mechanically connect pipe sections to other pipe sections, inline components, and equipment. Flanges also allow pipe to be assembled and disassembled without cutting or welding, which eliminates the need for those two operations when dismantling is required. In providing a breakable joint, however, flanges unfortunately provide a potential leak path for the process fluid...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-Part-2-Flanges_3131.html
March 1, 2007
  The preparation of a unit for restart requires complex and systematic approach. A plant restart project is traditionally composed of four steps: 1. A detailed unit-status evaluation 2. Preparation for onsite work 3. Major onsite work, which involves significant expenses for personnel, supply, equipment renting and contractors 4. Restart of the plant, which focuses on bringing the unit online. Upon...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Unit-Restarts-Where-to-Begin_3132.html
March 1, 2007
    The use of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is widespread in the chemical process industries (CPI). In applications where contact between shell- and tube-side fluids is not tolerable, it is important for the engineer to understand some of the design details that ensure leak tightness. In his work, the author has found a great deal of literature that addresses the strength and tightness of tube...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Heat-Exchangers-Tube-to-Tubesheet-Joint-Tightness_3142.html
March 1, 2007
    The pressures and challenges placed on the chemical process industries (CPI) have been heralded so often that even a person on the street can articulate most of them; and the list continues to grow - cost containment, lawsuits, fewer blockbuster discoveries, unexpected competitors, and many more. The cold hard reality is that the CPI have entered into a tough, cruel business world where only...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Operational-Excellence-Begins-Here_3143.html
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