Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 461 - 480 of 533 stories.
March 1, 2007
    With energy costs rising, the value of most powders and bulk solids has been rising steadily as well, giving manufacturers ample reason to improve production efficiency. "Companies not only want to reduce their consumption of power, they also want to reduce product losses," says Scott Will, director of sales and marketing for Modern Process Equipment (Chicago, Ill.); "if you...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Increasing-Particle-Sizing-Efficiency_3321.html
February 1, 2007
    Why do governmental bodies regulate VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions? Because these compounds react with nitrogen oxides to produce ground-level ozone. VOC emissions have many names: hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), non-condensable gases (NCGs), or just plain “organic vapors.” Examples of such emissions in the chemical process industries (CPI) include gasoline and diesel...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/VOC-Emission-Controls-For-the-CPI_3119.html
February 1, 2007
    The equilibrium phase distribution ratio (K value) is necessary for designing and assessing the performance of distillation columns. This paper proposes a simplified approach to calculate the K value that is suitable for preliminary design work and for checking the performance of existing columns. The article also explains the first principles for calculation of K values from the fugacity of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Estimating-Equilibrium-Phase-Distribution-Ratios_3129.html
February 1, 2007
    Steam traps have been around for a hundred years or so, and for the most part, nothing revolutionary has come forward to change the basic way a trap functions. Any operation that uses steam to produce a high-quality, consistent product depends on a multitude of these ingenious devices to do their job day in and day out. Yet, who watches over these steam traps, which may number in the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Wireless-Diagnostics-for-Steam-Traps_3130.html
February 1, 2007
    This is the first in a series of articles that will cover a wide range of piping topics. The topics will cross process-industry lines, pertaining to, for example, the chemical, petroleum-refining, pulp-and-paper and pharmaceutical and other industries.The main intent of these articles to address questions and misunderstandings as they relate to use of piping on a general basis.   Typical...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-for-Process-Plants-Part-1-The-Basics_3141.html
February 1, 2007
    There are a variety of reasons to consider the purchase of a new tank or silo1. As organizations grow, so does the need for increased storage capacity. Meanwhile, an old tank may become corroded or worn and require replacing. Once it's determined that a new tank is needed, there are a variety of choices to consider. Whatever the end purpose, the chemical process industries (CPI) require tanks...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Silo-Design-And-Selection_3343.html
January 1, 2007
    Chemicals, plastics, pharmaceutical, food, agricultural chemicals, coal and bio-chemical industries have a wide array of processes where the raw materials, intermediates and products are in particulate form. Hazards associated with particulate solids are unique, and in most cases depend on the particle size. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic framework for designing...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Design-Safer-Solids-Processing-Plants_3118.html
January 1, 2007
    Predicting an adiabatic-temperature rise is useful to chemical engineers for a number of purposes. One use is with combustion reactions whereby it is useful for determining the adiabatic-flame temperature. The adiabatic-temperature rise can be calculated for any reaction of interest, and thus it is often useful in the analysis and design of reactors. The adiabatic-temperature rise is also...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Adiabatic-Temperature-Rise-An-Awkward-Calculation-Made-Simple_3127.html
January 1, 2007
    Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) are commonly used for controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a broad spectrum of industries. An RTO is basically a thermal oxidizer that uses ceramic media as the heat exchanger medium, providing high heat recoveries. Over the past few years, much attention has been given to the pros and cons of the different types of ceramic media...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Damper-Technologies-for-Regenerative-Thermal-Oxidizers_3128.html
January 1, 2007
    Improvements in cartridge dirt-holding capacity has led to new designs, as well as to new equations for filter selection and specification, which are linked to dramatic improvements in the time between turnarounds and filter changeout. Cartridge filtration serves the process industries in a host of applications. Ironically, however, filtration principles are not taught adequately in many...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Cartridge-Filtration-Principles-For-the-CPI_3140.html
December 1, 2006
    Accidents do happen. While not everything can be predicted, addressing safety concerns throughout the design of a process can help to prevent accidents from occurring. Designing with safety in mind can also help to minimize potentially serious consequences that would result if an accident did occur. On April 12, 2004, toxic allyl alcohol and allyl chloride were released from a reactor at a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-for-A-Safe-Process_2789.html
December 1, 2006
    Even with the best process design, the unexpected can happen. Anticipating this, rupture disks are often installed as the last line of defense against the over-pressurization of equipment used for the manufacture, transport and storage of many types of chemicals, petrochemicals, medicines, plastics, powders, food and beverages. When handled and installed properly, rupture disks are a safe and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Troubleshooting-Field-Failures-of-Rupture-Disks_2790.html
December 1, 2006
    For companies in the chemical process industries, water is an indispensable utility. But the growing scarcity of quality industrial water, combined with stricter environmental regulations and the rising cost of wastewater treatment, have encouraged the conservation of water as a key utility in process plants. Concurrently, the development of systematic techniques for water reduction has made...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Assess-Your-Plants-True-Water-Savings-Potential_2810.html
December 1, 2006
    New crystallization-system designs rely on previous successful installations and rules for scaling-up systems to adapt to slightly different conditions. However, guidelines or rules of thumb have underlying assumptions that might have been ignored when scaling-up a system during the design phase. This practice often leads to difficulties in practical application. This point will be clearly...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Crystallizers-And-Agitators_2826.html
December 1, 2006
    Screening is an integral part of many dry material processes, ensuring an end product that is free of fine or oversized material, or in some cases achieving a specified particle distribution. In any case, the screening process is critical to the quality of the end product. Screening equipment uses screening medium (usually wire mesh or perforated plate) and a screening motion to convey the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Factors-Affecting-Screening-Performance_3115.html
November 1, 2006
        Vapor pressure is important to engineers throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowledge of a compound's vapor pressure is required in the design of storage vessels containing the compound. In hazard analysis, knowledge of vapor pressure is required in the design of the relief valves to protect the system. For design of vapor-liquid operations, such as distillation...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Antoine-Coefficients-for-Vapor-Pressure-of-the-Elements_2809.html
November 1, 2006
    The dramatic jump in petroleum and natural gas prices over the recent years has created much impetus to reduce operating costs at chemical process plants. In processes that use either oil or gas for feedstock, such reduction can come either from improved energy-usage methods or from yield improvements. In either case, the plant's steam resource is often a primary provider of heat or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Handle-Steam-More-Intelligently_2823.html
November 1, 2006
    Energy consciousness and environmental awareness have transformed condensate from an inexpensive byproduct of steam distribution to a valuable resource that can substantially reduce operating costs. For process systems that use steam as the heat transfer media, improved condensate management can enhance the overall system performance and longevity. Condensate is a ready-made supply of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Steam-Management-Dont-Send-Money-Down-the-Drain_2824.html
November 1, 2006
    More and more, it is recognized that business and science are interwoven, and that these disciplines can complement each other to achieve corporate goals. In the chemical process industries (CPI), a noteworthy role is that of engineering in helping management comply with regulatory policy. A common procedure for most process engineers is performing a mass balance around a given system. Once...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Mass-Balance_2825.html
November 1, 2006
        When Estee Lauder begin stirring up recipes for facial creams recipes in her kitchen some 70 years ago — the start of a $6.5-billion cosmetics empire that still bears her name — making high-purity emulsions was not the demanding process that it is today. To manufacture cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions, such as ointments, crèmes and gels, a wide range of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Making-Emulsions_3110.html
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