Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 481 - 500 of 538 stories.
November 1, 2006
        Vapor pressure is important to engineers throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowledge of a compound's vapor pressure is required in the design of storage vessels containing the compound. In hazard analysis, knowledge of vapor pressure is required in the design of the relief valves to protect the system. For design of vapor-liquid operations, such as distillation...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Antoine-Coefficients-for-Vapor-Pressure-of-the-Elements_2809.html
November 1, 2006
    The dramatic jump in petroleum and natural gas prices over the recent years has created much impetus to reduce operating costs at chemical process plants. In processes that use either oil or gas for feedstock, such reduction can come either from improved energy-usage methods or from yield improvements. In either case, the plant's steam resource is often a primary provider of heat or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Handle-Steam-More-Intelligently_2823.html
November 1, 2006
    Energy consciousness and environmental awareness have transformed condensate from an inexpensive byproduct of steam distribution to a valuable resource that can substantially reduce operating costs. For process systems that use steam as the heat transfer media, improved condensate management can enhance the overall system performance and longevity. Condensate is a ready-made supply of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Steam-Management-Dont-Send-Money-Down-the-Drain_2824.html
November 1, 2006
    More and more, it is recognized that business and science are interwoven, and that these disciplines can complement each other to achieve corporate goals. In the chemical process industries (CPI), a noteworthy role is that of engineering in helping management comply with regulatory policy. A common procedure for most process engineers is performing a mass balance around a given system. Once...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Mass-Balance_2825.html
November 1, 2006
        When Estee Lauder begin stirring up recipes for facial creams recipes in her kitchen some 70 years ago — the start of a $6.5-billion cosmetics empire that still bears her name — making high-purity emulsions was not the demanding process that it is today. To manufacture cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions, such as ointments, crèmes and gels, a wide range of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Making-Emulsions_3110.html
November 1, 2006
    The need to transfer bulk-solids materials from the outlet of a bin or from a conveyor, to a process, truck, or another bin is ubiquitous throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Transferring material using equipment designed to mechanically convey chemicals works quite well, especially for long distances; however, for short distances, it can be prohibitively expensive and...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Dos-and-Donts-Of-Chute-Design_3114.html
October 1, 2006
    Water is an essential resource for the chemical process industries (CPI), with steam, cooling water and process water as just a few examples of its many applications. When readily available, this essential commodity is often taken for granted. There is, however, a risk of losing the availability of classic water resources such as groundwater, river water or potable water for an industrial...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Wastewater-A-Reliable-Water-Resource_2792.html
October 1, 2006
    The process industries are extensive users of energy. But it is now clearly established that a large amount of this energy is wasted, essentially in the form of heat rejected to the environment through gaseous or liquid effluents. The temperature level of this heat makes it of no use by the process; and at the same time, in many cases, it cannot be economically upgraded. Examples of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Get-the-Most-Out-of-Waste-Heat_2807.html
October 1, 2006
    Provided that they are updated when appropriate to keep them relevant, time-tested heuristics rules based upon experience, also referred to as rules of thumb, can be useful for the design, specifying and operation of several kinds of equipment used in process plants. The first and foremost heuristic rule is that the engineer should not shy away from using heuristics - and the second rule is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Heuristics-Rules-for-Process-Equipment_2808.html
October 1, 2006
    Since its introduction to the market in 1959, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (better known as CPVC) has proven suitable for use in a wide variety of chemical process environments. Because it is inert to most mineral acids, bases, salts and aliphatic hydrocarbons, it offers a more reliable, long-term performance than many other materials, including metals and most non-metallic alternatives. In...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-CPVC-In-Chemical-Process-Environments_2822.html
September 1, 2006
    Since their inception, data buses have been highly acclaimed in the chemical process industries (CPI) for their potential to achieve interoperability and substantial wire-savings - advantages that are particularly easy to envision for a theoretical case in which a plant is constructed from the ground up and communicates by a single data bus. In the real world, however, the majority of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Getting-the-Most-Out-of-Intelligent-Devices_2785.html
September 1, 2006
    The reason for installing a bus is generally four-fold: to reduce costs; to speed and simplify control system design, installation, and startup; to provide alarming and troubleshooting diagnostics; and to gather valuable information about the process itself.   Today, we specify bus-connected automation almost exclusively for both new automation systems and retrofits in applications...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Implementing-Communication-Buses_2786.html
September 1, 2006
    The ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 standard, which has guided North American users for the past decade in designing safety instrumented systems (SIS) has migrated to a new international standard based on the IEC 61511 and is now known as ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 (IEC 61511 Mod). Over the past few years, global chemical-process-industries (CPI) users have started to adopt this new standard, particularly...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Measurement-Best-Practices-for-Safety-Instrumented-Systems_2806.html
September 1, 2006
    Distillation, based on differences in the volatility of components, is the most common unit operation for separating homogeneous mixtures. In simple distillation columns, a single feed stream is separated into two product streams. Complex columns are those that involve either two feed streams or three product streams - a side-stream in addition to the top and bottom products. These complex...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Optimization-of-Complex-Distillation-Columns_2821.html
August 1, 2006
    For many years, the job of a control room operator at a petroleum refinery or chemical plant was seen as relatively simple: Keep the process running and fix it when it breaks. That perception is changing as more operators take on additional responsibilities for improving energy usage and process efficiency while maximizing production. Meanwhile, many companies have reduced the number of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Prevent-Plant-Upsets_2784.html
August 1, 2006
    Process engineers rely heavily on analytical instrumentation to ensure product quality. Properly designed systems help prevent contaminated fluids and gases from being delivered to consumers, or from reaching the next stage of production. Catching any problems as early as possible can yield significant savings in reduced product loss and system maintenance. Catching them efficiently lies...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Stream-Selection-Assemblies-For-Analytical-Instrumentation_2804.html
August 1, 2006
    If your estimate for a project's capital cost is too high or too low, incomplete or wrong, a poorly developed scope is the mostly likely cause. In almost all cases, project cost estimating is more accurate than the scope used to develop the estimate. (To develop a good project scope, please refer to "Get Your Scope Straight for Project Success," CE, February, pp. 36-38). Yet good...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Making-Sense-of-Your-Project-Cost-Estimate_2805.html
August 1, 2006
    In widespread use throughout chemical process plants, centrifugal pumps are often employed (and taken for granted) in severe service conditions. Consequently, it is hardly surprising that problems can arise during their operation. A major difficulty facing the chemical process industries today lies in the limited number of people who have enough skill and experience to diagnose and rectify...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Bring-Common-Sense-to-Pump-Troubleshooting_2820.html
August 1, 2006
    In the pharmaceutical, biotech and food processing industries, ingredients are transported, mixed, heated and cooled assuming the assurance of product purity required by lawmakers and taken for granted by consumers. Integral to the design of fluid-handling systems that must meet some of the most stringent standards of cleanliness in the world are equipment specifications that minimize the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Equipment-for-High-Purity-Fluid-Flow_3109.html
August 1, 2006
    Myths and misconceptions become part of accepted practice if repeated often enough. They are propagated by lack of fundamental particle-technology knowledge and by certain commercial interests. The list of presented here is by no means exhaustive. We have, however, made an attempt to cover a broad range of topics to highlight the widespread nature of these misconceptions. They are broken down...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dont-Fall-For-Common-Misconceptions_3113.html
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