Archives :: Technical & Practical
September 1, 2006
The reason for installing a bus is generally four-fold: to reduce costs; to speed and simplify control system design, installation, and startup; to provide alarming and troubleshooting diagnostics; and to gather valuable information about the process itself. Today, we specify bus-connected automation almost exclusively for both new automation systems and retrofits in applications...
August 1, 2006
For many years, the job of a control room operator at a petroleum refinery or chemical plant was seen as relatively simple: Keep the process running and fix it when it breaks. That perception is changing as more operators take on additional responsibilities for improving energy usage and process efficiency while maximizing production. Meanwhile, many companies have reduced the number of...
August 1, 2006
Myths and misconceptions become part of accepted practice if repeated often enough. They are propagated by lack of fundamental particle-technology knowledge and by certain commercial interests. The list of presented here is by no means exhaustive. We have, however, made an attempt to cover a broad range of topics to highlight the widespread nature of these misconceptions. They are broken down...
July 1, 2006
The usage of Coriolis flowmeters for measuring mass flowrates has become widespread in the chemical process industries, and the range of fluids with which these meters can be employed is likewise diverse. Among those applications, Coriolis flowmeters can readily be applied to cryogenic fluids (contrary to conventional flow-measurement practice with these fluids), provided that the measurement...
July 1, 2006
Processes incorporating bulk solids handling are ubiquitous in the chemical process industries (CPI), including the chemical, petrochemical, polymer, biochemical, agricultural chemicals, paints/pigments, energy and power, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical industries, to name a few. Studies conducted during the past two decades have shown that: More than 50% of products are...
June 1, 2006
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), together with particulate matter, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, are major components of air pollution that can lead to serious environmental and health hazards. Physical, chemical and biological treatment methods are available to remove VOCs from the air by either recovery or destruction [1-3]. Biological treatment methods, while less well-established...
May 1, 2006
There are several reasons why composite fiberglass-reinforced-plastic (FRP) pipe has been replacing conventional pipe, and why this still relatively new material (see box, p. 46) should be kept in mind whenever piping is being specified for a new or a revamp project. Engineers involved with specifying or using FRP pipe should have a clear understanding of its nature and properties. A good...
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