Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 481 - 500 of 527 stories.
September 1, 2006
    The reason for installing a bus is generally four-fold: to reduce costs; to speed and simplify control system design, installation, and startup; to provide alarming and troubleshooting diagnostics; and to gather valuable information about the process itself.   Today, we specify bus-connected automation almost exclusively for both new automation systems and retrofits in applications...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Implementing-Communication-Buses_2786.html
September 1, 2006
    The ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 standard, which has guided North American users for the past decade in designing safety instrumented systems (SIS) has migrated to a new international standard based on the IEC 61511 and is now known as ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 (IEC 61511 Mod). Over the past few years, global chemical-process-industries (CPI) users have started to adopt this new standard, particularly...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Measurement-Best-Practices-for-Safety-Instrumented-Systems_2806.html
September 1, 2006
    Distillation, based on differences in the volatility of components, is the most common unit operation for separating homogeneous mixtures. In simple distillation columns, a single feed stream is separated into two product streams. Complex columns are those that involve either two feed streams or three product streams - a side-stream in addition to the top and bottom products. These complex...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Optimization-of-Complex-Distillation-Columns_2821.html
August 1, 2006
    For many years, the job of a control room operator at a petroleum refinery or chemical plant was seen as relatively simple: Keep the process running and fix it when it breaks. That perception is changing as more operators take on additional responsibilities for improving energy usage and process efficiency while maximizing production. Meanwhile, many companies have reduced the number of...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Prevent-Plant-Upsets_2784.html
August 1, 2006
    Process engineers rely heavily on analytical instrumentation to ensure product quality. Properly designed systems help prevent contaminated fluids and gases from being delivered to consumers, or from reaching the next stage of production. Catching any problems as early as possible can yield significant savings in reduced product loss and system maintenance. Catching them efficiently lies...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Stream-Selection-Assemblies-For-Analytical-Instrumentation_2804.html
August 1, 2006
    If your estimate for a project's capital cost is too high or too low, incomplete or wrong, a poorly developed scope is the mostly likely cause. In almost all cases, project cost estimating is more accurate than the scope used to develop the estimate. (To develop a good project scope, please refer to "Get Your Scope Straight for Project Success," CE, February, pp. 36-38). Yet good...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Making-Sense-of-Your-Project-Cost-Estimate_2805.html
August 1, 2006
    In widespread use throughout chemical process plants, centrifugal pumps are often employed (and taken for granted) in severe service conditions. Consequently, it is hardly surprising that problems can arise during their operation. A major difficulty facing the chemical process industries today lies in the limited number of people who have enough skill and experience to diagnose and rectify...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Bring-Common-Sense-to-Pump-Troubleshooting_2820.html
August 1, 2006
    In the pharmaceutical, biotech and food processing industries, ingredients are transported, mixed, heated and cooled assuming the assurance of product purity required by lawmakers and taken for granted by consumers. Integral to the design of fluid-handling systems that must meet some of the most stringent standards of cleanliness in the world are equipment specifications that minimize the...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Equipment-for-High-Purity-Fluid-Flow_3109.html
August 1, 2006
    Myths and misconceptions become part of accepted practice if repeated often enough. They are propagated by lack of fundamental particle-technology knowledge and by certain commercial interests. The list of presented here is by no means exhaustive. We have, however, made an attempt to cover a broad range of topics to highlight the widespread nature of these misconceptions. They are broken down...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dont-Fall-For-Common-Misconceptions_3113.html
July 1, 2006
    Trends in the worldwide chemical process industries, especially a steep rise in the compression and liquefaction of gases to lower the costs of their storage and transportation, have heightened the engineer's need to have a working familiarity with chemical-process operation at low (nominally, below 0°C) and cryogenic (below –100°C) temperatures. In addition to natural gas...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Materials-of-Construction-for-Low-Temperature-and-Cryogenic-Processes_2782.html
July 1, 2006
    The usage of Coriolis flowmeters for measuring mass flowrates has become widespread in the chemical process industries, and the range of fluids with which these meters can be employed is likewise diverse. Among those applications, Coriolis flowmeters can readily be applied to cryogenic fluids (contrary to conventional flow-measurement practice with these fluids), provided that the measurement...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Flow-Measurement-in-Bitter-Cold_2783.html
July 1, 2006
    The beauty of fiber-optical spectroscopy is that small, inexpensive devices with no moving parts bring their capacity to where the samples are, rather than the other way round. As a result, spectra can be recorded in almost real time, which means that information about composition, concentration and other chemical parameters can be gathered alongside of temperature, pressure and flowrate. The...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Putting-Fiber-Optical-Spectroscopy-to-Work_2803.html
July 1, 2006
    Air pollution is monitored by many different regulatory programs, some of which require that emissions be measured continuously. This task is often accomplished by directly measuring air pollutants with continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS). In recent years, innovative technology has enabled a new approach that predicts emissions from process variables. Industry welcomes predictive...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Maturation-of-a-Technology-Predictive-Emissions-Monitoring_2819.html
July 1, 2006
    Processes incorporating bulk solids handling are ubiquitous in the chemical process industries (CPI), including the chemical, petrochemical, polymer, biochemical, agricultural chemicals, paints/pigments, energy and power, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical industries, to name a few. Studies conducted during the past two decades have shown that:     More than 50% of products are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solid-Tips-for-Project-Success_3112.html
June 1, 2006
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), together with particulate matter, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, are major components of air pollution that can lead to serious environmental and health hazards. Physical, chemical and biological treatment methods are available to remove VOCs from the air by either recovery or destruction [1-3]. Biological treatment methods, while less well-established...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Biological-Treatment-of-VOCs_2781.html
June 1, 2006
    Intelligent — and thorough — preparation of a process-design-basis document can make the difference between a high-quality design for a chemical-process project and a poor one. The process-design-basis document represents the owner’s instructions to the design engineering organization about what the owner wants designed, and how the owner wants the process design to be done...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/How-to-Prepare-a-Process-Design-Basis_2801.html
June 1, 2006
    Early predictions suggested that solvents would eventually be eliminated from industrial applications because of health and environmental concerns. After a short period of a small decline in solvent use in 1990s, the solvent demand is now growing steadily by 2.3% per year. At the same time, there have been changes in the types of solvents that are being used today. The general trend is...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Important-Determinants-Of-Solvent-Selection_2802.html
June 1, 2006
    Accurate temperature measurement can often be quite challenging, especially in situations where process temperatures are extremely high (above 800°F), the target is in motion, or the need to avoid contaminants is significant. Infrared (IR) temperature-sensing offers an attractive solution. IR devices function basically by measuring infrared energy at a distance. Infrared energy is emitted...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Infrared-Temperature-Monitoring-Know-the-Right-Questions-to-Ask_2818.html
May 1, 2006
    Accurate prediction of particulate-solids flow behavior during storage and feeding has eluded all but the most experienced solids handling experts. Often the process engineer is faced with the awkward task of making sense of bulk behavior. A powder sample held in a jar may appear to be free flowing, but hammer rash — jargon for the practice of hitting hoppers with pipes to dislodge...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Predicting-Powder-Flow-Behavior-A-New-Approach_2777.html
May 1, 2006
    There are several reasons why composite fiberglass-reinforced-plastic (FRP) pipe has been replacing conventional pipe, and why this still relatively new material (see box, p. 46) should be kept in mind whenever piping is being specified for a new or a revamp project. Engineers involved with specifying or using FRP pipe should have a clear understanding of its nature and properties. A good...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Dont-Overlook-Composite-FRP-Pipe_2799.html
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