Archives :: Technical & Practical
July 1, 2006
The usage of Coriolis flowmeters for measuring mass flowrates has become widespread in the chemical process industries, and the range of fluids with which these meters can be employed is likewise diverse. Among those applications, Coriolis flowmeters can readily be applied to cryogenic fluids (contrary to conventional flow-measurement practice with these fluids), provided that the measurement...
July 1, 2006
Processes incorporating bulk solids handling are ubiquitous in the chemical process industries (CPI), including the chemical, petrochemical, polymer, biochemical, agricultural chemicals, paints/pigments, energy and power, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical industries, to name a few. Studies conducted during the past two decades have shown that: More than 50% of products are...
June 1, 2006
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), together with particulate matter, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, are major components of air pollution that can lead to serious environmental and health hazards. Physical, chemical and biological treatment methods are available to remove VOCs from the air by either recovery or destruction [1-3]. Biological treatment methods, while less well-established...
May 1, 2006
There are several reasons why composite fiberglass-reinforced-plastic (FRP) pipe has been replacing conventional pipe, and why this still relatively new material (see box, p. 46) should be kept in mind whenever piping is being specified for a new or a revamp project. Engineers involved with specifying or using FRP pipe should have a clear understanding of its nature and properties. A good...
April 1, 2006
Fundamental to the chemical process industries (CPI) — whether specialty or bulk chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food products, minerals processing, environmental protection or other products or activities — is the need for mixing. The wide variety and complexity of mixing tasks encountered in industrial applications require careful design and scale up to ensure that effective mixing...
April 1, 2006
Typical process utilities include electricity, process steam, refrigerants, compressed air, cooling water, heated water, hot oil, process water, demineralized water, municipal water, and river, lake, or ocean water. For preliminary cost estimates, waste disposal cost can also be treated like a utility expense. Unlike capital, labor, and other expenses, utility prices do not correlate simply...
April 1, 2006
At present, around 540 billion Nm3 of hydrogen is produced worldwide, and the trend is upward (Hydrogen: The Real Action Is Today, CE, February, pp. 28ff). The numerous chemical-process and other industrial applications of this colorless, odorless gas vary widely as regards the quantities and purities required. Thus, it is useful for the engineer to have a working knowledge of the several...
March 1, 2006
Solvents have been used for centuries and in all type of industries for the processing, manufacturing and formulation of goods. In the chemical process industries (CPI), solvents are used in various process-operation steps such as separation (of gas, liquid and/or solid), reaction (as reaction medium, reactant, and carrier), degreasing, washing and many more. As part of product formulations...
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