Archives :: Technical & Practical
April 1, 2006
At present, around 540 billion Nm3 of hydrogen is produced worldwide, and the trend is upward (Hydrogen: The Real Action Is Today, CE, February, pp. 28ff). The numerous chemical-process and other industrial applications of this colorless, odorless gas vary widely as regards the quantities and purities required. Thus, it is useful for the engineer to have a working knowledge of the several...
March 1, 2006
Solvents have been used for centuries and in all type of industries for the processing, manufacturing and formulation of goods. In the chemical process industries (CPI), solvents are used in various process-operation steps such as separation (of gas, liquid and/or solid), reaction (as reaction medium, reactant, and carrier), degreasing, washing and many more. As part of product formulations...
March 1, 2006
Engineers often need to predict the cost of piping and pipefitting associated with a process unit. Even though detailed prices are available, finding and organizing them takes time and costs money. For those needing a quick method of approximation (such as for a pre-design estimate), a short-cut piping cost method is presented in this article. For convenience and compactness, the relevant...
February 1, 2006
Groundwater, surface wa-ter, wastewater, drinking water: it’s all essentially the same stuff. Whichever stage of the water cycle you care to look at, chemical engineers are to be found — either trying to stop water from becoming polluted in the first place, or cleaning up afterwards. Cleaning up outdoors Many water purification processes rely on naturally occurring...
February 1, 2006
In the U.S. last year, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita powerfully demonstrated the ability of nature to disrupt companies’ operations and commitments. In a business context, the effects of such natural (or, for that matter, civil or social) disruptions can be felt up and down the hydrocarbon, petrochemical and other chemical-process supply chains, causing shortages, delays and allocations of material...
January 1, 2006
Leakage costs industry millions of dollars every year. For example, a few small leaks in a facility using air at 100 psig, with an electric consumption cost of about 6¢/kWh, can waste more than $22,000 annually. Delaying the replacement of a leaking $100 steam trap could waste $50 per week; since an average facility typically has hundreds of steam traps throughout its operations, leaking...
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