Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 61 - 80 of 527 stories.
October 1, 2013
Boilers generate steam using different methods to circulate the steam-water mixture through the evaporator tubes. These methods include natural circulation (Figures 1, 2a–2c), forced circulation (Figure 3a), and a once-through design. Figures 3b, 4 and 5 show examples of a waste-heat water tube and fire-tube boilers with external downcomers and risers. Most boiler systems have evaporator tubes heated...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Understanding-Boiler-Circulation_11068.html
October 1, 2013
It is well known that the oil-and-gas, chemical and petrochemical industries are capital intensive. They require sophisticated facilities (plants), the installation of which are typically handled via capital projects that, regardless of size, require significant effort from a number of parties for execution. The investing or operating company is typically called the owner and, for a number of reasons...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/The-Owner-Role-in-Capital-Projects_11072.html
September 1, 2013
Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer formed by the polymerization of 10,000–20,000 monomers of propylene. With a global market of about 60 million metric tons per year, PP is the second most-used polymer globally. More than 35% of the world’s total PP is produced using LyondellBasell’s (Houston; www.lyondellbasell.com) Spheripol technology. The process In Spheripol technology...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Bulk-Phase-Process_10941.html
September 1, 2013
Proper steam-trap sizing is critical to efficient and reliable steam-trap operation. Incorrect steam trap sizing can undermine the design and function of the steam trap, create installation issues, and cause condensate backup, steam loss, or both. Steam-trap sizing refers to the internal discharge orifice for condensate. Unfortunately, it is sometimes confused with the size of the end connection or piping...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/How-To-Properly-Size-A-Steam-Trap_10944.html
September 1, 2013
Rotary equipment, such as centrifugal pumps, often represent the heart of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI). A critical factor in the longterm reliability of such equipment is a high-quality design and commissioning process, so that initially, the rotary equipment will have the maximum built-in strength to survive upset operating conditions, yet not be overdesigned in a way that leads to...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Improve-Rotary-Equipment-Reliability-with-Checklists_10945.html
September 1, 2013
Mixing and blending of bulk solids is a common processing step in many industries. For example, in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dosage formulations (tablets or capsules), small amounts of a powdered active drug are carefully blended with excipients, such as sugar, starch, cellulose, lactose and lubricants. With foods, many powder-form consumer products result from custom mixed batches; consider...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Fundamentals-of-Bulk-Solids-Mixing-and-Blending_10946.html
September 1, 2013
Solid and serrated fins (Figure 1) are widely used as heat transfer surfaces in boilers and heaters. The use of finned tubes makes heat exchanger equipment compact. The fluegas pressure drop is also decreased relative to a comparable plain-tube design, resulting in lower operating costs. Fin geometry, such as fin density (fins/in.), fin height and fin thickness, should be selected with care as it impacts...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Understanding-Finned-Heat-Exchangers_10954.html
August 1, 2013
Propylene has been established as an important part of the global olefins business, trailing only ethylene in terms of volume of product. Because inexpensive natural gas from shale in the U.S. is increasingly used as a feedstock for producing ethylene, lower quantities of three- and four-carbon olefins are available. For this reason, new chemical processes for on-purpose propylene using low-cost raw...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Methanol-to-Propylene-Technology_10789.html
August 1, 2013
The scaleup of liquid mixing systems does not have to be a mystery. The principles are quite well understood, although knowing which principles apply is not always obvious. Follow this guidance to improve operation. 1. Liquid mixing scaleup. Liquid mixing is the most common use of scaleup methods in chemical engineering. The concept of scaleup is to take small-scale results and predict results in...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Ten-Things-You-May-Not-Know-About-Liquid-Mixing-Scaleup_10818.html
August 1, 2013
Raw materials and energy represent two of the largest expenses in the chemical process industries (CPI). Energy reduction is necessary to sustain cost-effective production and manage capacity in the ever-changing CPI marketplace. Process simulation software can prove extremely valuable in evaluating energy reduction potential. This article discusses the successful application of process simulation software...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Absorber-Optimization-Employing-Process-Simulation-Software_10822.html
August 1, 2013
Manufacturers face seasonal supply-and-demand variations in their production cycle due to fluctuations in both market demand and supply of raw materials. Therefore, manufacturers need solutions that can help them to cope with this challenge in effective production planning. Pinch analysis, which has been used for resource conservation in the past few decades, has recently been extended to production...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Pinch-Analysis-for-Production-Planning-in-Manufacturing-Industries_10823.html
July 1, 2013
Polymer-based piping systems offer a number of advantages, along with some limitations, compared to metallic and other non-polymeric pipe materials. The use of thermoplastic piping in the chemical process industries (CPI) must be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis because of the constraints introduced by various CPI applications. Polymers remain only a small (~10%) part of the global CPI piping...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Polymer-based-Piping_10685.html
July 1, 2013
Polyethylene (PE) is the world’s largest-volume commodity polymer. Along with high-density (HDPE) and low-density (LDPE) polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) is one of the three main types of PE. The global market for LLDPE is over 20 million metric tons per year, corresponding to about 30% of the total PE produced. In LLDPE production, three major types of low-pressure technologies...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/A-solution-based-route-to-LLDPE_10693.html
July 1, 2013
Security of SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) and other industrial control systems (ICSs) is a complex subject, and one that has received much attention in recent years. While modern industrial control systems use many of the same computers, operating systems and networking components as conventional business networks, the two kinds of networks are managed very differently. As a result, what...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Securing-Industrial-Control-Systems_10695.html
July 1, 2013
When considering project proposals for new processes in the chemical process industries (CPI), capital equipment costs often become the primary focus. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed examination of the total cost of process equipment and the implications that the initial equipment cost has for longterm costs over the full life of the process. FIGURE 1. Initial capital costs alone are...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Lifecycle-Costs-for-Capital-Equipment-in-the-CPI_10697.html
July 1, 2013
Rotary valves are used almost universally in pneumatic conveying systems. They serve three main functions: 1) to provide a pressure-seal (airlock) between two adjacent processes, 2) to provide solids metering (feeding) and 3) to provide a combination of solids metering and a pressure-seal for feeding solids into a pneumatic conveying system. Rotary valves are common devices for feeding solids into a...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Rotary-Valves-in-Pneumatic-Conveying-Systems_10698.html
July 1, 2013
For most engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) projects in the chemical process industries (CPI), the data sheets developed at the beginning of the process provide the “shopping lists” that guide the procurement group on the purchase of equipment, system packages, instruments and more. Data sheets should function as the central document, into which all final result of design or...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Getting-the-Most-Out-of-Data-Sheets_10699.html
June 1, 2013
Calculating the volume of a liquid in a vessel of a complex shape is a common task for chemical engineers. However, there are several difficulties associated with accurately carrying out this calculation. In my own experience as a chemical engineer, I have become familiar with the complexities of calculations related to determining the volume of a liquid contained in a vessel with an irregular shape...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Solving-Vessel-Equations-A-Better-Way_10573.html
June 1, 2013
Ethylene is arguably the most important building block of the petrochemical industry, frequently produced via steam cracking of a range of petroleum-based feedstocks. Rising oil prices and concerns about global warming have motivated research into ethylene manufacture from renewable sources. The “green” ethylene made from ethanol (for example, from corn, sugarcane or lignocellulosic biomass)...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Ethylene-Production-via-Ethanol-Dehydration_10581.html
June 1, 2013
Ongoing advances in the design and use of dry gas seals (DGSs; [ 1]) — as an alternative to traditional oil-lubricated wet seals [ 2] — have helped to improve the reliability and efficiency of compressors throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). One of the major design considerations in mechanical seals is how to protect seal faces from wear, as one face rotates close to a static face...
http://www.chemengonline.com/technical_and_practical/Compressors-N2-Expands-the-Applicability-of-Dry-Gas-Seals_10582.html
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