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Gas-solid reaction makes efficient solar cells

By Tetsuo Satoh |

The research group of Yabing Qi at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST; Japan; https://groups.oist.jp/emssu), in collaboration with Shengzhong Liu at Shaanxi Normal University, China, has developed a simple method to fabricate thin (1µm) perovskite films that can be used in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Small PSCs with the thin films achieve an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.1±0.4%, with good reproducibility. Moreover, the method enables fabricating (5 × 5)-cm 2 solar modules with an active-area efficiency of 15.3%, which is equivalent to existing PSCs. The un-encapsulated PSCs exhibited an excellent lifetime (T80), exceeding 1,600 h under continuous operation in a dry nitrogen environment.

The perovskite films are made by a fast gas-solid reaction of chlorine-incorporated hydrogen lead triiodide, HPbI3(Cl) and methylamine (CH3NH2) gas. The resultant thick and smooth chlorine-incorporated perovskite films exhibited full coverage, improved crystallinity, low surface roughness and low thickness variation.

This study not only provides a highly reproducible method to fabricate PSCs and modules with enhanced efficiency and stability — keys for their commercialization — but also gained an in-depth understanding for the underlying mechanisms responsible for device stability improvement.

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