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Technology Profile: Nitrobenzene Production

By Intratec Solutions |

This column is based on “Nitrobenzene Production from Benzene – Cost Analysis,” a report published by Intratec. It can be found at: www.intratec.us/analysis/nitrobenzene-production-cost. Nitrobenzene is an important chemical intermediate. More than 95% of nitrobenzene is used in the production of aniline, which is largely used to manufacture isocyanates for polyurethane foams, plastics and dyes. The relative ease of aromatic nitration has contributed to the varied industrial applications of nitrobenzene derivatives. The process The process examined here (Figure 1) is similar to Noram’s adiabatic benzene-nitration process, and consists of three major sections: benzene nitration, purification and vent treatment. Figure 1. The diagram outlines a process for nitrobenzene production via adiabatic nitration[/caption] Benzene nitration. Benzene is preheated and fed to a plug-flow nitrator. Nitric acid (65 wt.% solution in water) is also preheated and mixed with fresh and recycled (re-concentrated) sulfuric acid before being fed into the reactor. In the nitrator, benzene reacts with nitric acid, producing nitrobenzene. The process operates with a stoichiometric excess of benzene to ensure complete nitric acid conversion in the…
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