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Non-ideal Gas Calculations Using Analytical Residuals

By Subin Hada and Shafik E. Sadek Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of South Alabama |

Many operations involving ideal gases are readily calculated using a basic knowledge of thermodynamics. Non-ideal gas behavior, however, can deviate significantly from that of ideal gases, and in some cases, large errors can be introduced in process calculations if a gas is improperly assumed to behave ideally. The pressure, volume and temperature ( PVT) relationship of a gas defines its behavior and is used to account for its non-ideality. This PVT behavior of a gas is described by its equation of state (EOS). Knowledge of the EOS allows us to estimate the behavior of the gas more accurately when it is undergoing physical operations, such as compression or expansion. The introduction of “residual functions” (defined as the difference between a property of the real gas and that property for an ideal gas held at the same temperature and pressure) simplifies the calculation of thermodynamic function changes, such as the enthalpy or the entropy, when the conditions of a gas are changed. For example, the energy required to compress a non-ideal gas may differ significantly from that of an ideal gas and is readily estimated by using the appropriate “residuals.” Residuals are determined from the EOS. Tables or charts…
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