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Comment PDF Heat Transfer

Pressurized Piping: Sampling Steam and Water

By Lee Machemer Jonas, Inc. |

Corrosion and deposition in boilers, steam turbines and many types of process equipment are among the most expensive causes of outages in utility and industrial steam plants. Deposits and scale buildup on heat-transfer surfaces reduce efficiency, and when allowed to accumulate on steam turbines, such buildup can reduce the capacity. Corrosion-related failures can result in outages ranging from a few days to several months, depending on the affected systems, and can potentially cost tens of millions of dollars. To reduce the risk of corrosion and deposition in water and steam systems, the standard practice is to monitor cycle chemistry and control impurity levels within industry- and manufacturer-recommended limits for the equipment. In steam plants, the chemical parameters of interest include: pH; conductivity; sodium; calcium; magnesium; chloride; sulfate; fluoride; phosphate; acetate; formate; propionate; total organic carbon (TOC); silica; copper; and dissolved and suspended iron (oxides). Typical target concentrations are in the range of <1 part per billion (ppb) to several parts per million (ppm) [1, 2]. Unfortunately, many utility and industrial steam plants do not have properly designed and operated sampling systems to monitor…
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