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Organic Chemical Functional Groups

By Scott Jenkins |

Chemical functional groups are critical determinants of the properties and reactivity of compounds. The following provides a review of the structures of common organic functional groups, along with some notes and examples. Alkyne. Acetylene is used as a fuel for gas welding and a raw material for chemical manufacturing. Hydroxyl. Alcohols and phenols contain this functional group, which is capable of forming hydrogen bonds. Aldehyde. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are important industrial building blocks used in resins, wood adhesives and others. Ketone. Acetone, cyclohexanone and methylethyl ketone are important ketones, used as solvents or in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, polymers, fragrances and more. Amine. Derivatives of ammonia, amines are important biologically (amino acids, neurotransmitters), as well as in industry. Aniline and ethanolamines are important in manufacturing dyes, rubber, pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and more. Carboxylic acid. Acetic acid, butyric acid and fatty acids are among the important carboxylic acids. Fatty acids are key components of many soaps and detergents. Ether. Diethyl ether is used as both a laboratory and industrial solvent and reagent, as well as an engine starting fluid…
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