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Comment Heat Transfer

Steam generator operation and thermodynamics

By Chemical Engineering |

A well-operated steam generator can save money. In a steam-driven turbine system, water is heated in the steam generator to produce high-temperature, high-pressure steam. Steam is then expanded in a turbine to produce electricity from a generator. Turbine steam is condensed back into water in the condenser. A pump then returns the water to the steam generator. Engine thermodynamics Theoretically, the most efficient engine possible operates with a heat input (QH) at high temperature (TH) and a heat discharge (QL) at low temperature (TL) in which: (QH/TH) − (QL/TL) = 0 This case represents an unattainable ideal engine, because energy losses — due to friction, heat escaping from the system, flow disturbances and a variety of other factors — are inevitable. Entropy is the property scientists have used to describe this degree of disorder. Applying the concept to the situation in a steam generator and turbine system, the process cannot be made to do work without some extraction of heat from the process. In a conventional steam generator, QL is the heat removed in the condenser. And since the efficiency of a Carnot engine is η = 1 – (TL/TH), as the input temperature goes up or the exhaust temperature goes down,…
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