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Chementator: Ethanol from peels

Although citrus peels are rich in pectin, cellulose and hemicellusic polysaccharides, such waste products are currently marketed as low-value cattle feed, despite its relatively high processing cost, according to the ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory (Winter Haven, Fla.; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5829-544).…

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Chementator: Pd catalyst

Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Mo.; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5829-550) has commercialized an air- and water-stable palladium catalyst for performing intermolecular cross-coupling reactions, aminations and intermolecular Heck transformations. The catalyst, developed by Professor Michael Organ at York University (Toronto, Canada), is based on a Pd-NHC…

A multilayered, self-sensing diaphragm for metering pumps

Mechanically driven diaphragm pumps (MDDPs) are widely used for metering applications in the chemical process industries. But because the pressure difference between the drive and the delivery side gives rise to tensile loads in the flexing zone of the diaphragm,…

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Chementator: Microbial contamination — see it and believe it

In Anaheim, Calif., last month at the Parenteral Drug Assn.’s annual meeting, Pall Corp. (East Hills, N.Y.; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5829-539) introduced Ascotec to the global market, a faster, more accurate system for detecting microbial contamination in clean-room air systems. When compared to…

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Don’t Overlook Composite FRP Pipe

    There are several reasons why composite fiberglass-reinforced-plastic (FRP) pipe has been replacing conventional pipe, and why this still relatively new material (see box, p. 46) should be kept in mind whenever piping is being specified for a new…

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Microreactors widen their reach for increased capacities

It is now fairly well established that mass- and heat-transfer efficiency, reaction selectivity and yield can be improved using microreactor technology (CE, July 2001, pp. 27–35). But the small channel dimensions (below one square millimeter) that are responsible for the…

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Metals-‘free’ H3PO4 is now available off the shelf

A new phosphoric acid that contains less than 100 parts per billion of 30 different metal ions is now commercially available from Febex S.A. (Box, Switzerland; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5828-539), the phosphorous specialties subsidiary of CECA Arkema Group (Paris). The new grade of…

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A new metal nitride

Using a diamond anvil cell to create high (up to 50 GPa) pressures, and a laser to create high (up to 2,000 K) temperatures, researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL; Calif.; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5828-543), the Carnegie Inst. of Washington, and the…

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Know Your Hydrogen-Supply Options

    At present, around 540 billion Nm3 of hydrogen is produced worldwide, and the trend is upward (Hydrogen: The Real Action Is Today, CE, February, pp. 28ff). The numerous chemical-process and other industrial applications of this colorless, odorless gas…

3D nanostructures

By combining a high-resolution scanning electron microscope and an ion-beam microscope into a single device, researchers at the Max Plank Institute for Iron Research (Düsseldorf, Germany; edlinks.chemengonline.com/5828-545) are able to “see” the inner structure of nanomaterials, biological matter, and high-performance…