Mobile Navigation

Facts At Your Fingertips

Facts At Your Fingertips: Lifecycle Cost Analysis Basics

When evaluating capital projects in the chemical process industries (CPI), there are many scenarios in which there are important differences between the alternatives in terms of capital, operations and maintenance and decommissioning costs. In these cases, decisions must be made…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Gas Dispersion in Liquids

Injecting gases through a diffuser into a liquid is an important aspect of many operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). Important applications include dissolving reactant gases into a liquid phase for further reaction (such as in hydrogenation, oxidation, ozonation),…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Heat-Transfer Fluid System Venting

Heat transfer fluids (HTFs) provide heating and cooling of process equipment, including reactors, autoclaves, distillation columns, reboilers, mixers and dryers. HTF system designs should provide for effective system venting, both of residual water at startup and of degradation products during…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Alternating-Current Induction Motors

Alternating-current (a.c.) induction motors are widely used throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) and other manufacturing sectors to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to power rotating equipment, such as centrifugal pumps, compressors and fans, as well as other industrial…

Facts at your Fingertips: Clean-in-Place (CIP) Systems

Cleaning equipment surfaces is critical for processes involving biological materials to prevent microbial contamination. Clean-in-place (CIP) systems play a key role. In addition to preventing contamination, CIP systems also remove grit, scale and organic matter, which may affect process performance.…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Physical Gas-Separation Methods

Industrial gases are critical for a wide range of applications throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Many of these gases must be separated from others, such as nitrogen from air, or hydrogen from natural gas using physical gas-separation techniques that…

Member Exclusive

Facts At Your Fingertips: Predictive Maintenance Methods

Predictive maintenance (PdM) programs can provide advanced warning of equipment problems and potential failures. This one-page reference provides brief descriptions of six common predictive maintenance methods. Infrared thermography Continuous monitoring of equipment temperature over time has the potential to identify…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Respiratory Protection Equipment Types

Chemical process industries (CPI) facilities often present a number of potential respiratory hazards, including airborne particles, toxic chemicals and low-oxygen environments, that may require the use of respiratory personal-protective equipment (PPE). This reference outlines the major categories for respiratory protection…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Process Hazard Identification Methods

Process hazards analyses (PHAs) are structured reviews during the engineering design process intended to detect potential hazards that were not addressed by the design team. This one-page reference describes commonly employed PHA methods. PHA methods PHAs are often conducted or…

Facts At Your Fingertips: Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container (FIBC) Basics

Flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBCs), sometimes known as bulk bags, are widely used in the chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and other chemical process industries (CPI) sectors, to transport and store dry, flowable bulk-solid materials, such as granules, powders, grains, clays,…